Sunday, April 24, 2011


FAUZANAH, Rahmawati (2009)
This research belongs to a descriptive qualitative research. The aims of this research are to find out the translation variation of English complex sentences and to describe the translation equivalences of complex sentences in the novel The Scarlet Letter and its translations. The data of this research paper are complex sentence and their translation found in novel The Scarlet Letter consisting of 254 pages, and the researcher finds 110 data in complex sentences. The results of the research shows that there are 6 variation of translation complex sentences namely: (1) complex sentences are translated into complex sentences 43 data or 39,09%, (2) complex sentences are translation into simple sentences 37 data or 33,64%, (3) complex sentences are translated into compound sentences 5 data or 4,54%, (4) complex sentences are translated into compound-complex sentences 3 data or 2,72%, (5) complex sentences translated into two sentences or more 4 data or 3,36%, and (6) complex sentences are translated into omitted or deleted 18 data or 16,36%. Therefore, it can be concluded that research are complex sentences are translated into complex sentences. There are 61 data or 55,45% data belong to the equivalence translation and there are 49 data or 44,45% data belong to nonequivalence translation. Therefore, it can be concluded that research are equivalence translation.

A. Background of the Study
Language is an important thing in human life. Through languages, people
can communicate with each other. By using language, they can express their
thoughts, idea, feeling, intentions, etc. This means that they will always be dealing
with form of sound symbol of a language in daily communication. In other words,
language is not just a flow of utterances but is has an important role in human life.
Language is a tool that used by people to express their thoughts and
feeling, their willing and their behaviors; a tool that used to be influence and to be
influenced, and language is a first base and rooted for human society.
From the above statement, it can be concluded that language cannot be
separated from human life. Human always need it in their life.
There are many languages in the world. All are used and developed well
by the users. One of the languages is English. Now days English plays great role
in the world. Especially in our country, Indonesia, English now takes a more
important role because Indonesia is still developing country and its people need to
keep up with what modern countries have achieved.
English is used as international language for many years. By which
information and science are spread out. There are many books are written English.
Many efforts have been to translate English book into Indonesian. It is done
because there are a few people who can understand and communicate in English.
Translating English into Indonesian is not easy thing to do. It needs an enough
capability. Nida (1964: 150) says that :s
A translator must have a satisfactory knowledge of the source language.
He must understand not only obvious content of message but also the
subtleties of the meaning, the significant emotive values of words, and
the stylistic features which determine the flavor and the feel of the
message. Even more important that knowledge of the resources of the
language is a control of the receptor language
From the previous statement, know that a translator must have reliable
knowledge and experience in this field. As a communicator, moreover, the
knowledge and skills related to all communicators have to possessed. He has to
access the target language knowledge, text-type knowledge, sources language
knowledge, subject area (real world) knowledge and contrastive knowledge
(Roger T Bell, 1997: 36).
Translating literary work, of course more complex than other works. A
translator has to be experience or at least he knows the social cultural background
of the source language writer. He also to understand the basic concept of literary
work and basic concept to analyze literary work.
To translating literary work text, the translator usually finds difficulties to
translate the aesthetic and expressive elements. The translator has to mountain the
beauty of words, the beauty of rhythm and the atmosphere as well as the
expression of the writer. In literary work, the writer expresses him self in a
beautiful way. The expression that is written in a language must be transferred by
the translator text because a translator is a mediator between the writer and the
readers of the target language. Because the problems of translating literary work
are so complex, it is a must for the translator to master both source and target
language in which the original literary work is written should be, at least, it should
be mastered in the receptive and productive degree. Then the ideal translator are
those whose native language is the target language.
In literary work, the writer expresses himself in many kinds of sentences.
And making a complex sentence is more challenging of the very large variety of
clause signals to choose from the many combinations. Know that complex
sentence consist of the one of main clause and one more dependent clause which
are very various and have many possibilities to post.
Complex sentences can be used to judge whether a work is written in a
good way or not. B y which it can be know how accuracy and various of the
writing of work. Joseph and Zalmer (2003: 365) says that “……..they are the best
means of eliminating choppy sentences and of giving accuracy of literary work,
will not be satisfied until he has cut down the number of the simple or compound
sentences and increase the number of the complex sentences. By using more
complex sentences, it can show the mature thinking of the writer. The more
mature writer will see the difference between an important ideal and more detail.
To make hers writing more accurate and everything equal, a writer will build hers
main idea into part of hers sentence and tuck the detail into clause. In other word,
she writers more complex sentences.
The using of complex sentences in work also does not show the dullness
of the sentences because of the variety of the sentences in its paragraphs
and subordinate clause, on the other hand, expresses the relations of the writer’s
ideas. So it makes the readers do not have monotonous sense to the work and
show the empathy of its paragraphs.
To translate complex sentence, first a translator has to be able to identify
which the main clauses are and which the dependent clauses are. Complex
sentences are not always translated into complex sentences too. They are
sometimes translated into compound sentences or into two single sentences. It can
be seen that translating complex sentences will deal with the complexities of
problem. Complex sentences, moreover, sometimes have a subordinate clause that
is not completely expressed. It demand the ability of the translator to predict how
the first complete sentence is to make her easy to translate.
The novel of the scarlet letter is one of English literary work. It is written
by Nathaniel Hawthorne and translated into Indonesia entitled scarlet letter by
Olenka Munif. Nathaniel Hawthorne is a great black man writer born on July 4,
1804, in Salem, Massachusetts. In the novel of the scarlet letter, the researcher
finds many kinds of complex sentences. Here are some them and their translation:
1) SL : When the young woman-the mother of this child stood fully revealed
Before the crowd.
TL : Ketika wanita muda ini-ibu dari si bayi-berdiri tegak di tengah
Kerumunan, ia mendekaperat-erat anaknya.
Both the SL and the TL show complex sentences, because there is an
independent clause (SL: it seemed to be her first impulse to clasp the infact
closely to her bosom, TL: ia mendekap erat-erat anaknya ) and a dependent
clause (SL: When the young woman-the mother of this child-stood fully revealed
before the crowd, TL: Ketika wanita muda ini-ibu dari si bayi-bardiri tegak di
tengah kerumunan) with conjunction (when which is translated into ketika)
connecting the independent clause and the dependent clause.
2) SL : Before she saw him, the stranger had bent his eyes on Hester Prynne.
TL : Sebelum Hester melihatnya, pria asing itu telah memusatkan
Pandangannya ke arah Hester.
Both the SL and TL show complex sentences, because there is an
independent clause (SL: the stranger had bent his eyes on Hester Prynne, TL:
pria asing itu telah memusatkan pandangannya kea rah Hester) and a dependent
clause (SL: Before she saw him, TL: Sebelum Hester melihatnya) with
conjunction (Before which is translated into Sebelum) connecting the independent
clause and the dependent clause.
3) SL : The far and the longing were too much for him, so he began to think
of other things.
TL : Ketakutan dan kerinduan menjadi terlalu menyusahkan baginya,
maka dia mulai berpikir tentang hal-hal lain.
As can be seen in the example above, the ST is a complex sentences that
consist of one independent clause (The fear and the longing were too much for
him) and one dependent clause (so he began o think of other things). Both clauses
are connected by conjunction so. Mean while, the TL is translated into simple
sentence that consists of two independent clauses(Ketakutan dan karinduan
menjadikan terlalu menyusahkan baginya) and (dia mulai berpikir tentang hal-hal
Considering the three sentences above, it can be seen that they are English
complex sentences that are connected by the conjunction when, before, so, and
translated into Indonesian complex sentences that are marked by the conjunctions
ketika, sebelum, maka and translating them will be deal with the
complexities of problems. The translator does not just pay attention to the intra
linguistic aspects of the target language, but also the extra linguistics aspects
including social-cultural for a translator to understand. He has to know the socialcultural
background of the source language and the target language.
Talking about culture, it can’t be separated from the language. There is a
strong interaction between them because language is the heart of the body of the
culture. So it results something like life energy that continuously exists. No
language can exist unless it is steeped in the context of culture are two items that
relate each other. Against this translating language can not neglect the existing of
the culture of both language.
Based on the phenomena above, it is interesting to analyze the complex
sentences from the cultural point of view. By analyzing complex sentences of a
work writing, and the sense of the readers to the writing of the work. Therefore, it
is significant in the novel of the scarlet letter from the cultural point of view
B. Previous Study
To support this research, two research will be presented as follows, first ;
the research was conduched by Rananingsih, 2004, UNES, entitled Analisis
Terjemahan Kalimat Majemuk Bahasa Indonesia ke dalam Bahasa Inggris dalam
Roman Belenggu Versi Bahasa Inggris Terjemahan John H. Meglyn. Rana uses
50% from the population or 75 complex sentences from population as her sample
to answer her problem statement. The important result are found from research
are : Most of the data are translated by free translation (there are 48 sentences =
64% from the data), and the residues are translated by word-for-word translation
(there are 27 sentences = 36% from the data). Then she finds that the structural
changes occurred here. From her data, are a lot of complex sentences which
change their structure in the TL. But she concludes that it does not influence the
meaning that wants to be conveyed by writer of the SL to the readers. It means
that almost of data are translated correctly (97,3% ) and just 2,7% from the data
are translated incorrectly.
Secondly, the research is conducted by Rahman, 2006, UNY, entitled An
Analysis of Indonesian Translation of Complex Sentences in The Short Story
Entitled “Sherlock Holmes: The Dancing Men” By Athur Conan Doyle.
In this research, Rahman analyzed the accuracy and strategy in English
Complex Sentences. Translation at the novel entitled “Sherlock Holmes : The
Dancing Man”. On his research, he included that there are 36% of complex
sentences found in the novel (50) are translated into simple sentences, 22% are
translated into two simple sentences or more, 20% are omitted, 4% are translated
into compound sentences, and the rest (2%) are translated into compoundcomplex
sentences. Rahman look on discussion that 58% among 50 data in the
novel are translated correctly, and 42% of them are translated incorrectly by the
The important result that are found in her thesis are the translator does not
have enough capability to translate the complex sentences in the novel, so the
result of translation is not good because the translator does not used “good”
harmony with the principle of Indonesian. Sometimes, the usage of prefix,
conjunction, and second singular personal pronoun in that translation is not
appropriate. In addition, the translator sometimes throws the important word a
way in translating the sentences. Consequently; the translation looses its meaning.
While, the writer has similar analyzing but the data and data source is
different. In this research, the writer focuses on the translation of complex
sentences and uses the data as the data source.
C. Research Problem
Considering the research background, the problems proposed in thus study
are as follows:
1. What are the translation variations of the English complex sentences in the
novel The Scarlet Letter ? and
2. In terms of transfers of message, how is the translation equivalence of
complex sentences ?
D. Limitation of the Study
In fact, there are various type of sentences in the novel The Scarlet Letter
such as complex sentence, compound sentence, simple sentence, etc.In this study,
the researcher only studies the English complex sentences in the novel The Scarlet
Letter and its translation. This limitation is done to get result with sufficient
energy, time and finding.
E. Objective of the Study
The objectives of research are :
1. to describe the translation variations of the English complex sentences in the
novel The Scarlet Letter, and
2. to describe whether the translation of complex sentences are equivalence or not.
F. Benefits of the Study
It is hoped that the research gives beneficials to :
1. Theoretically
· The result of the research can give additional information to other
researchers who are doing for the research.
2. Practically
a. Teacher
· The results of the research can be used as additional information for the
teachers especially in teaching the complex sentences in their
b. Students
· The results of the research can be used as additional knowledge for the
students to improve their ability in analyzing complex sentences.
c. Other Researchers
· The results of the research can be useful for other researcher to make
further analysis dealing with translation shifts from other point of view.
G. Research Paper Organization
The research is designed to be systematic as follows :
Chapter I is introduction, which contains background of the study,
previous study, research problem, limitation of the study, objective of the study,
benefits of the study, research paper organization. Chapter II is underlying theory,
which contains definition of translation, principle of translation, process of
translation, type of translation, problem of translation, cultural of translation,
complex sentences, clauses of complex sentences. Chapter III is research method,
which contains type of the study, object of the study, data and data source, method
of collecting data, technique of analyzing data. Chapter IV discussed research
finding and discussion. Chapter V draws conclusion and suggestion.

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The objective of the research is to know whether STAD technique can improve the students competence in reading of VII grade of SMP Negeri 2 Penawangan. The type of the study is classroom action research (CAR). The process undertaken in this CAR uses three cycles. The subjects of the study in the research are students of class VII F of SMPN 2 Penawangan. The object of the study is STAD to improve student’s reading competence of Student’s of class VII F SMPN 2 Penawangan. The test results are gained from post test in each cycle, whereas the non-test results are gained from observation and interview. The technique of analysis is based on three main components namely data reduction, display and verification. Based on the research findings and discussion, it can be concluded that STAD can improve the students reading competence for the students of class F SMPN 2 Penawangan. It can be seen from the passing levels of the students from initial stage that is 42 into 49 in cycle I; 58 in cycle II and 75 in cycle III. Student’s achievements in reading improve from the initial stage up cycle III. Besides it can improve the student’s competence. The method in teaching may also improve the student’s motivation in lesson, they learn how to learn and discuss on group with other friend.

A. Background of the Study
Reading is one of the complex ways in learning English. It is such kind of activity to comprehend the writer’s ideas or the way the writer communicates with the readers by way of the written or printed words. Reading is important for everybody in order to cope with new knowledge in the changing world of technological age. The existence of the importance of reading will hopefully continue to increase in the years to come. Nevertheless, there are still some people who never have much initial interest or lasting interest in book and readings, so they cannot access to reading activities and reading programs. Reading programs may help students develop their language skills necessary for success. But it is hard to implement an effective reading program, especially in countries where English is treated as a foreign language. The success of implementing reading programs will depend on the student’s interest.
In relation to reading, the survey research administered by National Education Department of Republic of Indonesia showed surprising results. It is proved that reading comprehension competence of elementary school students were in a low level. Almost 76.95% of students were unable to use dictionary. Among those who were able to use dictionary, there were only about 5% who can search words in Indonesian Dictionary systematically (Muhibbin, 1995: 34).
The same condition also happens in SMPN 2 PENAWANGAN Grobogan. The problem they experienced in English is concerning reading competence. Most students, about
380 students of 640 are lack in English. It is shown from their passing grade in English that are below minimum passing grade required by the curriculum. As a more intensive observation undertaken, the problem is mostly in reading comprehension. Students are unable to comprehend the reading materials in the text. Therefore their understanding on material taught is quite poor.
The problem faced by the student’s of SMPN 2 PENAWANGAN especially class X F is difficult to read the sentences in the text, because in daily life they use Java language, so English is the third language for them after Indonesian. Students are unable to comprehend the reading materials in the text, they only guess to understand the meaning on the text. Sometimes words on English have more than one meaning, the real meaning from the dictionary and meaning from the text is different. So the students feel confused and then they will be lazy to learn English.
Based on the fact above, it is necessary for language teacher to foster reading on their students. It may be done by selecting proper materials for the students. The reading programs may be useless if it is not done properly. The teacher should select reading materials that are relevant to the student’s needs and interest. Teaching and learning process of English in Junior High School mostly emphasizes reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Beside those four language skills in teaching English such language components as vocabulary, structure, spelling etc must be paid attention to.
A good reading will improve the student’s ability in gathering ideas to communicate. To improve the student’s ability, the teacher should use appropriate method. The method should be interesting to interest students in teaching learning process. One of the methods is cooperative learning method. It is seen as an active learning process, because students will
learn more through a process of constructing and creating working in a group and sharing knowledge. Nevertheless, individual responsibility is still the key of success of learning English. A cooperative learning method is believed as being able to give chance for students to be involved in discussion has courage and critical thinking and is willing to take responsibility of his/her own learning.
Students Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) is then taken as the technique to be implemented. It is a type of cooperative learning that might overcome the problem. It is the way to give stimulus for the students to be motivated to learn so that they will be active. Using this technique the students are the center. They will be in the team that consists of various good students and weak students. Every team consists of 4-5 students. They will study together to get better achievement in the form of individual improvement scores after taking the individual quiz. Every member in a team may be responsible for their team progress so that they will get predicate super team that means they will have high achievement.
Based on the explanation above teaching reading should be emphasized in raising students motivation so that teaching learning process of reading results the better achievement. The writer is interested in conducting a research entitled: IMPROVING STUDENT’S READING COMPETENCE USING STUDENTS TEAM ACHIEVEMENT DIVISION (STAD) FOR THE FIRST STUDENT OF SMP NEGERI 2 PENAWANGAN.
B. Problem Statement
Based on the background of the study, the writer formulates the following problems:
1. How is the implementation of Student Team achievement Division (STAD) in teaching learning process of reading?
2. Can Students Team Achievement Division Tem (STAD) improve the students reading competence?
C. Limitation of the Study
In conducting this study, the writer makes limitation. The writer only focuses on the Improving Student Reading Competence Using Students Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) for the first year students of SMPN 2 PENAWANGAN in 2008/2009 academic year.
D. Objective of the Study
Generally, the study aims to improve the students reading skill, specifically it is to:
1. Describe the implementation of Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) in learning process.
2. Find whether the Students Team Achievement divisions (STAD) improve the student’s reading competence.
E. Benefit of the Study
The writer hopes that this research has two benefits in the English teaching learning process, especially in teaching learning reading. The two kinds of benefit in this research are theoretical and practical benefit:
1. Theoretical Benefit
a. The result of research can be used as an input in English teaching learning process especially on reading competence.
b. The result of research can be used as the reference for those who want to conduct a research in increasing reading competence.
2. Practical Benefit
a. The research paper may give a broader knowledge about teaching learning process to readers
b. The research paper may improve student skill in their reading competence by recognizing the result.
c. The research paper may give understanding about the problems experienced in teaching reading to students.
F. Research Paper Organization
The researcher discusses five chapters in the research. Chapter I is introduction which covers background of the study, problem statement, limitation of the study, object of the study, benefit of the study, and research paper organization.
Chapter II is review of related literature which presents previous study, notion of reading, general concept of teaching reading (the notion of teaching reading, the principle of teaching reading, the reading technique), notion of cooperative learning (definition of cooperative learning and the elements of cooperative learning), notion of students team achievement division (the concept of STAD and the preparation for implementing STAD), the importance of STAD in teaching reading and theoretical framework and action hypothesis.
Chapter III is research method that consists of type of the study, action procedures, subject of the study, object of the study, data and data source, method of collecting data and technique for analyzing data.
Chapter IV is related to the process of the implementation of teaching reading using student’s team achievement division (STAD) in teaching learning process and student’s response to do activities.
Chapter V is conclusion and suggestion.

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The research paper aims to figure out kinds of Australian English sounds and the differences between Australian English accent and British English one used in Australian movie. The data of this research are in the form of words taken from Australian movie. This research is a descriptive-qualitative study, which uses technique of collecting, classifying, and analyzing, then drawing conclusion. In analyzing the kinds of Australian English pronunciation and accent, the researcher refers to the Australian English sound system. To describe the difference between Australian English accent from British English accent, the researcher employs the distributional method, especially in substitutional method and extention method. The result of the study shows that first, the kinds of Australian English sounds are two diphthong and five vowels sounds that are used in Australian English sound, they are: [ɑe], [æɔ], [æ], [i:], [ɐ], [ɔ], and [ʉ:]. Second, the difference between Australian English Accent and British English one is in the form of the position of the lip, mouth, tongue, low jaw, nasalisation, long and short pronunce, etc. Mostly, the vowel sound used in Australian English is diphthong of [ɑe] sound.

A. Background of the Study
English language becomes a common language, because it is an international language which is used by every one in the world for communication. Every body maybe just knows and uses American English or British English in their communication. Without realizing, one’s use of various English such as Australian English, Canadian English, Hongkong English, Indian English, South Africa English, Malaysian English, Irish English, French English, Spanish English, etc. each of that accent of English has its uniqueness and interestingness.
There are two kinds of abilities to maintain communication, namely oral communication ability and written one. One of the oral communication sub-skills is pronunciation. Pronunciation is important to study, because it makes someone understand the right pronunciation and also make the target speaker understand the meaning of the word or the sentence. According to Richard (1992: 296) pronunciation is stressed more on the way sounds are perceived by the hearer. Pronunciation is one of the three components of language together with the grammar and vocabulary. It plays an important part in listening and speaking skill.
Here, the writer is interested to analyze the pronunciation, especially Australian English pronunciation, because many Australian has different pronunciation and its so uniqueness pronounce than British English one.
Basicaly, many Australian English pronunciation borrowed the pronunciation of British English, the vowels, consonant, and diphthong also have the same table, but the language experiences many development and experiences many differences pronunciation in several words, so Australian make their own pronunciation in order to the target speaker can understand what they want to say. This differentiation of word’s pronunciation can be influence by the level of education, the region, etc. Australian English pronunciation is significant to study, because it can studied by analyzed the kinds of diphthong and vowels in Australian English and also in British English one. It is also can analyzed by differentiate between Australian English accent and British English one.
Australian English pronunciation was got by the writer in the dialogue of Australian movies. To find the the kinds of Australian English sounds and accent, the writer analyzed kinds of Australian English sounds (vowels and dipthongs) and also analyzed the difference accent between Australian English to British English. In Australian movies, the writer tries to describe how the Australian accent and pronunciation of words are, for example:
(in movie was entitled: Crocodile Dundee 1)
Dundee : “Two beers, Ida. One for me, one for me mate.”
Ida : “One for your mate, mad man!”
In the conversation above, the words “beer” and “mate” in British English was pronunced: [bɪəs] and [meɪt], but in Australian English, it is pronunced: [bɪərs] and [maɪt].
It is one of the pronunciation of Australian English in Australian English movie. Australian English pronunciation can be analyzed by finding the Australian English sounds (vowels and dipthongs) and differentiate between Australian English accent to British English accent. Based on the above reason, the writer intents to conduct a further research entitle: “A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF PRONUNCIATION OF AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH”
B. Previous Study
The writer consider that in one subject or case, two or more researchers may do it. They have the same topic or subject, that is pronunciation, but different in using the way or the source to apply it. Here, the writer find several researches related to this research, it is entitled “The Quality Of Pronouncing Diphtongs By The Second Semester Students Of English Department Of Muhammadiyah University Of Surakarta (A Case Study Of Students` Pronunciation In SEGA (Saturday English Gathering)” by Lina Ghorizah. In her analysis, she identify the points which the English diphthongs are articulated by students and the most dominance English diphthongs articulated by the student.
The second researcher is Irma Andria Mahadina (2005) who conducted a study entitles “A Study on English Pronunciation by The First Semester Students of English Department of Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta in 2004/2005 academis year.” She focused on the student’s
pronunciation in producing and error analysis the vowel, consonant, and diphthong sounds which shift from the standard pronunciation made by the native speaker. The result of the data analysis shows that the student’s English pronunciation shifts from standard sound of native speaker. It means that most of the students are able to produce English pronunciation, but few still make shift of pronunciation. The shift or sound frictions are categirized into two; consonant and vowel.
Here, the writer focuses on the study on Australian English pronunciation especially on vowel, consonant, and diphtong sound of Australian English and the accent of it. From those researcher, the writer sure that her topic about the pronunciation of Australian English has not been analyzed yet.
C. Problem Statement
Based on the considerations in the background of the study, the writer states the problems are mentioned below:
1. What are the kinds of Australian English sounds?
2. How are the Australian English different from British English accent?
D. Objective of the Study
From the problem statement, the writer tries:
1. To describe the kinds of Australian English sounds.
2. To differentiate Australian English accent from British English one.
E. Limitation of the Study
Australian English pronunciation can be analyzed based on phonology approach. In phonology approach one, can analyze the kinds of vowels and dipthong which are used in Australian and British English pronunciation. It is also used the comparative approach between Australian and British English pronunciation and accent. In this research, the writer focuses on vowel and diphthong sounds, because the most dominant difference in Australian English pronunciation is in vowel and diphthong sounds.
F. Benefits of the Study
The writer hopes that the research would be useful for the reader and the writer herself. Those benefits are:
1. Theoretical Benefit
The result of this research can be used as income in developing in the phonetic theory of English, especially in pronunciation study and speaking study, in order to the learner can differentiating between the pronunciation of Australian English to British English.
2. Practical Benefit
This research can gives the benefits:
a. The readers are able to recognize the pronunciation of Australian English.
b. The result of the research can give the consideration to the readers about the pronunciation of Australian English and accent of Australian English.
c. The result of the research can give information to the readers that not only British English who can learn, but also Australian English.
d. The result of the research gives advantage to add the knowledge of the readers about kinds of pronunciation.
G. Research Paper Organization
Chapter I is Introduction, which comprises of Background of the Study, Review of Previous Study, Problem Statement, Objectives of the Study, Limitation of the Study, Benefits of the Study, and Thesis Organization.
Chapter II is Underlying Theory, which comprises of General Concept of Pronunciation, Australian English Sound System, British English Sound Systems, Accent.
Chapter III is Research Method, which comprises of Type of Research, Object of the Study, The Source of Data, Method of Collecting Data, Technique of Analyzing Data.
Chapter IV is Research Result, which comprises of Data Analysis, Discussion of Findings.
Chapter V is Conclusion, Implicature, and Suggestion, which comprises of Conclusion, Implicature, and Suggestion.

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This research paper elaborates the struggle for love of Gabriel Oak in Thomas Hardy’s novel, Far from the Madding Crowd, that are analyzed through individual psychological approach. The objectives of the research are to analyze the structural elements of the novel and to analyze the novel based on individual psychological approach. This research belongs to a qualitative research. The data of the research is the text of a novel entitled Far from the Madding Crowd. Whereas the data source comes from both primary data source which is in the form of the text of the novel being researched and secondary data source such as biography of the author, websites and other sources. The method to analyze the data is descriptive analysis. Having analyzed the novel, the researcher comes to the conclusions as follows: Hardy presents the main character of Gabriel Oak that is drawn as a man who puts great respect and interest towards the grandeur of nature and lives in harmony with nature can patiently await the woman he loves. During the flow of the story he becomes a loyal and devoted man and in the end of the story he can win his true love.

A. Background of the Study
There are many needs that people try to fulfill, for example, the needs
of food, cloth, house and love. The last is as important as the others. Lack of
love will make people feel anxious, bored and lonely. Love is condition or
phenomenon of emotional primacy, or absolute value. Love generally includes
an emotion of intense attraction to other person, a place or thing: and many
also include the aspect of caring for or finding identification with those object,
including self-love. (http://articles.gourt.com/en/love)
Love can make people feel happy, sad, and angry. It makes people
laugh and cry. Musbikin (2002: 30) says that love is sacred. It is given by
Allah, It’s priceless. It means everybody deserves love even though he or she
has to struggle for it. In the struggle to find love, people’s personality and life
style change. People will try to be better when they meet someone that they
love. Someone who is falling in love will always feel happy and tries to look
better and better in front of the person that they love. Far from the Madding
Crowd was written by Thomas Hardy and was first published in serial form
during January until December 1874 in Cornhill Magazine, as asserted by
Allingham (2000). The title of the novel was obtained from Thomas Gray’s
Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard in stanza 19 (Baker, 1976: 9). It
became Hardy’s first novel to be popular with public; and also brought him
some financial success (http://www.pinkmonkey.com/booknotes/monkey
notes/pmFarFrom01.asp). In Far from the Madding Crowd (1874) he contrasts
the design of the great medieval barn, in which the sheep-shearing takes place,
with those of a church and a castle in that the purpose which had dictated its
original erection was the same to which it was still applied (Thornley and
Roberts, 1984: 462).
The story of Far from the Madding Crowd is written by Thomas Hardy
with evocative descriptions of rural life and landscapes. It is narrated with the
strong nuance of rural and agricultural life of its characters who deal with land
farming and sheep farming the entire day. A young sheep farmer who meets
and falls in love with a girl named Bathsheba Everdene has lost many of his
sheep caused by his young dog. After Gabriel Oak is bankrupt, he decides to
follow Bathsheba to Weatherbury to be her shepherd and bailiff. Gabriel Oak
has succeeded in handling her farm and her cattle, but he is not able to win her
heart. Through the whole story, there are three very different suitors who fall
in love with Bathsheba: the gentleman-farmer Boldwood, soldier-seducer
Sergeant Troy and the devoted shepherd Gabriel Oak
(http://www.pinkmonkey. com.dl/library1/digi008.pdf). The research is
interested in analyzing this novel by an individual psychological approach and
takes a title for his study “Struggle for Love of Gabriel Oak in Thomas
Hardy’s Far From The Madding Crowd”
B. Literary Review
There are at least two researches which have been conducted by the
students of Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta concerning the studies of
Thomas Hardy’s Far from the Madding Crowd. The first research is entitled
“The Struggle of Better Standard of Living in Thomas Hardy’s Far from the
Madding Crowd: A Marxist Approach” written by Siti Markhamah. The
second research is an Individual Psychological research written by Dyah Ayu
Ekasari with the title “The Importance of Moral Conduct in Thomas Hardy’s
Far from the Madding Crowd: Individual Psychological Perspective”.
In addition, there is a sociolinguistic research done by Heri Prasetya, a
student of Sebelas Maret University, with the title “An Analysis of Non
Standard Forms in the Novel Entitled Far from the Madding Crowd by
Thomas Hardy (Sociolinguistics Approach).” It is a research done in order to
find out the forms of the non Standard English used by the characters, to
describe the messages revealed by the use of the non standard forms in the
dialogs, and the social status of the characters related to the use of non
standard language.
Meanwhile, in this research the researcher intends to study the
structural element of the novel. It will be done by discovering the individual
psychology that is reflected in the novel especially concerning with a struggle
for love of Gabriel Oak from individual psychological approach.
C. Problem Statement
Based on the title and the background of the study, the main problem
in this research is, “How is a struggle for love reflected in Thomas Hardy’s
Far from the Madding Crowd?”.
D. Limitation of the Study
In conducting the research, the writer’s problem statement is going to
be discussed. This research only deals with the struggle of the major character,
the firm in analyzing man’s struggle, the research views the major character
from psychological perspective.
E. Objective of the Study
The aims of the research are follows:
1. To analyze the novel on the structural elements
2. To analyze the novel with individual psychological Approach
F. Benefit of the Study
The benefits of this study are as follows:
1. Theoretical Benefit
This study is expected to give contribution to the development of
the body of knowledge, particularly the literary studies on Hardy’s Far
From The Madding Crowd.
2. Practical Benefit
It is expected to give a condition in literary field as reference to the
other researcher in analyzing this novel particularly the students of
Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta.
G. Research Method
1. Object of the Study
The object of the study is Hardy’s Far From The Mading Crowd
2. Type of the Study
In analyzing the data found in the novel, the researcher uses the qualitative
method as the type of the research.
3. Type of the Data and the Data Source
In doing this study, the writer uses two sources of data, namely primary
and secondary data sources.
a. Primary Data
The primary data source is the novel itself, Far From The Madding
Crowd by Thomas Hardy’s
b. Secondary Data Source
The secondary data are taken from other sources which are related to
the primary data such as the biography of the author, and website about
Far From The Madding Crowd.
4. Technique of the Data Collection
The method of collecting data that the writer uses is library
research. Firstly, the writer reads and comprehends the primary and
secondary data source. Secondly she notes down of important information
in both sources. Then, she selects them by accepting the relevant
information with the problem and rejecting the irrelevant information that
does not support the topic of the study. Beside that the writer uses internet
to find the information about the novel and literary theory that she uses.
5. Technique of the Data Analysis
In analyzing the data, the writer employs descriptive qualitative
analysis or content analysis. The analysis is started on the author and then
the structural analysis of the novel and finally the individual analysis of
the literature.
H. Paper Organization
The paper consists of five chapters and each of them is sub divided
into sub sequent division. Chapter one is the introduction that consists of
background of the study, literature review, problem of the study, objective of
the study, benefit of the study, research method, theoretical approach and
paper organization. Chapter two is the underlying theory, namely explaining
about principle theory of personality. Chapter three is structural analysis; the
researcher explains the structural elements of the story and discussion. Chapter
four is data analysis; it presents six basic principles of an individual
psychological approach. This chapter represents the application of the
underlying theory in which the novel is analyzed by means of Adler’s
individual psychology. Finally, the last chapter integrates the overall
discussion and brings to the conclusion of the study.

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This study aims at describing the process of teaching speaking using multidirectional information gap with jigsaw activities, describing the effectiveness of teaching speaking using multidirectional information gap with jigsaw activities viewed from the students’ achievement, and describing the students’ response related to the teaching speaking using multidirectional information gap with jigsaw activities. The researcher applies classroom action research as the type of research. The data of this research are field note, interview script, and the scores of pre-test, and post-test. She uses observation, interview and document for collecting the data. The techniques of analyzing data are reducing, displaying or presenting the data and verifying the data. The action was conducted in three cycles and the result of the study shows that: 1) the implementation of multidirectional information gap with jigsaw activities consist of activities covering grouping students into expert group and jigsaw groups discussing the topic. After that the expert group and the jigsaw group exchange the group. The expert group joins the other jigsaw groups to re-explain the topic and after that they go back to their own group. 2) Teaching speaking using multidirectional information gap with jigsaw activities improves the students speaking ability in SMP N 1 Susukan. It is indicated by the improvement of the students speaking components in each cycle, and the improvement of the students’ average scores after the researcher gave the treatment. 3) The students’ responses after being taught by using multidirectional information gap with jigsaw activities are good. It is indicated by the students’ answers in questionnaire. The students were confident to speak freely in the classroom.

A. Background of the Study
Language as a means of communication is very useful and flexible. It can
serve human needs in their communication in any situation. Using language
people can express almost anything such as thought, action, political
controversies, ideas, emotions, desires, messages, falsehoods, etc by means of
language (Srijono, 2001: 9). Language and life cannot be separated one from
another .
There are four skills of language learning namely listening, writing,
reading, and speaking. Speaking cannot be separated from other elements in
English teaching-learning process, because speaking influences the ability of
students in studying English language. In addition, by mastering speaking skill
people can carry out conversation with others, give their ideas, and exchange
the information with the other people. In this case, everyone should be able to
speak English to face the global era because the English language has become
an international language.
Speaking is one of the important and essential skills that needs a lot of
practice to communicate. By speaking people are able to know the kind of
situation happens in the world. People who have ability in speaking will
receive the information better. Language is not only taught and learned, but it
is used as a habit. Therefore student of English must be able to speak English
well because people identify the English mastery with their English speaking.
Speaking skill is emphasized to make them speak the componens of speaking,
such as grammar, vocabulary, pronounciation, fluency, and comprehension.
The way of teaching speaking is intended to give basic competence about the
language itself to the student. The teacher gives opportunity for the students
to express their idea in speaking class.
Many teachers teach student passively. They let the students only
memorize the vocabulary, ask the students to open the exercise book, read the
task, and then do the exercise. Then the teacher asks the students to write the
words without asking the student to use it in the communication. Hence some
students do not know the function of this language exercise. As a result, the
students are not interested in English learning process. They become passive
in English learning and they are not able to speak. Therefore, the English
teaching learning process is not effective.
Teaching speaking is not easy for several reasons. First, it relates to the
condition of students who lack of the vocabulary mastery. Second, they like to
use their native language more than English language in the teaching learning
process. Third, they rarely practice to use English to communicate. Fourth,
most of the students are not confident to speak English in speaking class,
especially in front of the class. The other problem related to the student is they
are not interested in the method given to them.
To make students able to speak, teacher must be creative enough to
manage the class so that the students are actively involved in the interaction.
Otherwise, there will be many problems appear in the teaching learning
process, as found by researcher when doing an observation at SMP N 1
Susukan. The first, the students are shy and bored of the traditional technique
implemented by the teacher. In addition, the teacher only gives one skill in
each meeting. The second, the student are not motivated to learn since they
have limited opportunity to express their idea. The third, the teacher only
gives materials, such as completing, reading dialogue, and written from hand
book. And the last, teacher gives less attention to each student especially in
big class.
Based on the interview, in SMP N 1 Susukan, the teacher has difficulties
to manage and to make the students interested in the material and the method.
During the teaching hours the teacher should make the students pay attention
to the materials given to them. It is a hard work for getting the students
attention. Lack of control also occurs when they teach in the large class.
Therefore, it is difficult to implement the individual control for each student.
The teacher in SMP N 1 Susukan teaches speaking using traditional method or
conventional way as an approach which offers an insight of gramatical rules
when the process of translating from the second language to the native
language is done, so that it is hard for the teacher to get the target of teaching
learning process. In the teaching learning activities, teacher as the central of
teaching learning process usually gives less chance to students for expressing
their idea. In addition, giving motivation is limited; commontly the teacher
just gives full attention to the material and neglects the student attraction. In
that situation, teaching learning process does not run well.
From the problems above, the researcher tries to give a solution for the
teacher to implement one of the teaching methods. There is a method of
teaching learning method which is interesting and it can improve students
ability and liveliness, that is multidirectional information gap with jigsaw
activities. This method is designed to create the students interest to learn with
pleasant method.
Based on the background above, the researcher is interested in conducting
a research entitled “Improving Speaking Skill Using Multidirectional
Information Gap with Jigsaw Activities at the 8th Year Students of SMP N 1
Susukan in 2008/2009 academic year”. Hopefully the result of this research
will improve the knowledge of teaching strategies for the teachers and also
give benefit to the education in this country. It is expected that the researcher
as a teacher will be able to motivate the students to learn the materials, pay
attention to the teachers lesson, and make them not to get bored.
B. Problem Statement
Based on the background of the study, the problems of the research are as
1. How is the process of teaching speaking using multidirectional
information gap with jigsaw activities to the SMP N 1 Susukan?
2. Does teaching speaking using multidirectional information gap with
jigsaw activities improve the students’ speaking skill?
3. How is the students response of teaching speaking using multidirectional
information gap with jigsaw activities?
C. Limitation of the Study
The research realizes that it is impossible to carry out research based on all
factors above. As a result the writer makes limitation of the study as follows:
1. The subject of this research is limited to the 8th year students of SMP N 1
Susukan in the school year 2008/2009.
2. The study is only focussed on the teaching speaking using multidirectional
information gap with jigsaw activities to the 8th year students of SMP N 1
Susukan in the school year 2008/2009.
D. Objective of the Study
Based on the problem statement mentioned above, the study aims to;
1. Describe the process of teaching speaking using multidirectional
information gap with jigsaw activities to the SMP N 1 Susukan.
2. Know whether teaching speaking using multidirectional information gap
with jigsaw activities is effective viewed from student achievement
3. Describe the student response of teaching speaking using multidirectional
information gap with jigsaw activities.
E. Benefit of the Study
There are two benefits of the study; they are theoretical benefit and
practical benefit.
1. Theoretical Benefits
a. This research will enrich the study on teaching speaking especially on
multidirectional information gap with jigsaw activities teaching.
b. The result of this research can be useful for english teacher in giving
additional input of the method of teaching speaking.
2. Practical Benefits
The result of the study will be beneficial to the students, teachers, and the
other researcher who are interested in improving teaching speaking,
especially on multidirectional information gap with jigsaw activities.
F. Research Paper Organization
The researcher organizes this research paper by dividing it into 5 chapters
in order to make it easily understood. Each of them is concerned with different
issues but it is related to each other.
The first chapter is introduction. It covers background of the study,
problem statement, limitation of the study, objective of the study, benefit of
the study, and previous study.
The second chapter is underlying theory, which consists of teaching
speaking, technique of teaching speaking, multidirectional information gap
and jigsaw activities.
The third chapter is research method. This chapter deals with type of
research subject of the research, object of the study, data and source of data,
method of collecting data, technique for analyzing data and research
The fourth chapter is research implementation and research result.
The fifth chapter consists of conclusion and suggestion.

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His research paper is aimed at describing teaching reading by using folktales ti the fifth year students of SD TANGKISANPOS. The reason of conducting this research in this school is because the technique applied in the school does not support the students reading improvement. In this research, the writer conducted a class room action research. It aims at colllecting information of a phenomenon occurred. The methods of collecting data are observation, document, and interview. There are three source of the data; event, informants and documents. The result of the research paper show that : 1) The implementation of folktales in vocabulary mastery is effectivelly done, it succeds the improvement of the students vocabulary mastery by setting up the material in folktales, 2) teaching by folktales brings improvement to the students vocabulary mastery.

A. Background of the Study
Nowadays English becomes more and more important for people
throughout the world because people need to communicate to each other using
English that would be a lingua franca for several languages that exist. English
is one of the most popular international languages in the world. For that reason
people need to have the ability to speak English fluently.
To face the global era, in Indonesia English is adopted as be the first
foreign language. Hence, English is needed to be taught at elementary schools
because it will be the basic element for the higher level. By learning English at
elementary school, the students are expected to become accustomed to the
language. In elementary school English has been taught from the fourth year
as a local content. It is clearly stated in GBPP 1994 (D. Sumarno, 1994: 58):
“Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris tidak wajib diselenggarakan di SD melainkan
diselenggarakan sebagai muatan lokal. Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris dimulai di
kelas IV.”
It is important to introduce them to the vocabulary earlier. Vocabulary
is necessary in every stage of language learning. Language is not only used as
words of knowledge, but also a medium in mastery at a level which
automatically allows them using it in real time. So we need to master
vocabulary first before we learn a certain language. If we do not understand
any word of the language we will not be able to understand the meaning of it.
Considering the importance of vocabulary, it is better to introduce new
vocabulary earlier. At elementary school, English is introduced to the students
through learning its vocabulary. Children are commonly easier to absorb the
new vocabulary even though they are sometimes easy to forget them too.
Teachers need to review the lesson all the time in order to help them
memorize the new vocabulary easily.
Most of students at elementary school still feel strange and face some
difficulties with English at the first time they are getting the lesson. We need
to encourage the children to love the lesson. Therefore, the teacher should
begin by discovering what subjects the children are interested in and providing
a wide variety of material suited to their interest.
Favat (1968) in Petty and Jensen (1980:136) states that:
Children read what they please, or more accurately, what
pleases them. Teachers and parents must come to understand
that the question is not whether one kind of reading produces
a more satisfying experience than another but whether it
produces a more satisfying experience than another – that is,
whether children find the stories an ever-continuing of their
own need and desire.
Folktales are also popular with young children. They love talking
animals story, and the humor and magical of traditional stories. Therefore,
folktales can be suitable material in attracting the children to the lesson.
Folktales have many special characteristics that make them
exceptionally good for language teaching. Their frequent repetitions make
them excellent for reinforcing new vocabulary and grammar. Because
folktales began as oral stories, they also have many characteristics that make
them easier to understand than other type of literature. Folktales are often
published as children’s book with easy language and context-providing
illustrations; many are accessible to students with limited language abilities.
In learning and mastering language, particularly vocabulary, there are
some obstacles that are faced in technical manner such as the hesitance of the
student to be involved in the classroom activity. They tend to avoid the
practical involvement in mastering the language. Hence, the class needs to be
lightened up in a way that helping the student find their best indulgence in
learning language particularly, learning vocabulary.
Because of the urgency to teach English at elementary school, the
writer wants to carry out a research about improving the students’ vocabulary
mastery. The result of student’s achievement shows the low achievement the
students get. The low achievements are caused by the monotone teaching
methodology use. Hence, the students are not enthusiastic in learning process.
In this case, the writer will use folktales as the material in teaching English. It
may help the students to improve their achievement in learning vocabulary. It
is also aimed to make an interesting learning process in the classroom. So, the
students will be interested in the lesson, and they will memorize the words
easily. And in SD Negeri Tangkisanpos Jogonalan Klaten which is the subject
of the research, the writer found that the students’ vocabulary mastery is still
low and the students are not too active during the English lesson.
Based on the reason above, the writer would like to study: “Improving
Vocabulary Mastery Through Folktales Reading : An Action Research at
the Fifth Year Students at SD Negeri Tangkisanpos Jogonalan Klaten”
B. Problem Statement
Based on the background of the study, the writer wants to know
whether using folktales can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery in
learning English at elementary school. The problem can be formulated as
follows: “Does using folktales improve the elementary students’ vocabulary
mastery in learning English?”
C. Objective of the Study
In general, this study is intended to describe an improvement to the
student vocabulary mastery in learning English at elementary school using
folktales. And to give descriptions about how to overcome the problem that
arise in teaching English vocabulary using folktales.
1. describe the implementation of folktales in mastering vocabulary.
2. describe whether folktales can improve the students achievement in
learning vocabulary by using folktales.
D. Benefit of the Study
This research has practical and theoretical benefits:
1. Theoretically
The result of this research solves the problem faced by teacher in teaching
vocabulary during teaching and learning processes:
2. Practically
The research can improves the students’ vocabulary mastery
Vocabulary for the elementary school students’
E. Research Paper Organization
In order to make the research to be easy to follow, the writer organizes
the paper as follow:
Chapter I deals with introduction. It consists of background of study,
benefit of study and research paper organization.
Chapter II deals with the review on related study, teaching learning
process and the theory of vocabulary such as the vocabulary aspects and the
significance of vocabulary as English skill competence.
Chapter III concerns with research method. It discusses about type of
the research, subject of the study, object of the study, method of data
collection and technique for analyzing data.
Chapter IV is research implementation and discussion, then chapter V
consists of conclusion and suggestion.

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This research aims to find the form of swearwords and the reasons of using swearwords movie manuscript. This research uses documentation and observation method to get the data. The data are swearwords utterance and their context. The data source is Bad Boys 2 Movie. The type of this research is descriptive qualitative research. In order to collect the data, she must first reads and learns Bad Boys 2 manuscript, then, takes notes of swearwords in Bad Boys 2 manuscript. Next, registers all swearwords in “Bad Boy 2” movie, whether in word and phrase, and the last, she groups the swearwords in the same classification. The result of the study shows that there are; 1) Two forms of swearwords, they are word and phrase. The word consist of noun they are 45%, verb 15%, adjective 7,5%, and adverb 5%. Where as phrase consists of noun phrase 17,5%, adjective phrase 7,5%, and adverb phrase 2,5%. 2) The reasons using swearword are showing anger 22,5%, showing mocking 22,5%, showing annoyance 15%, showing surprise 12,5%, showing deragatory 12,5%, showing warning 7,5%, showing happiness, showing power, showing intimacy, 2,5%.

A. Background of the Study
Communication is the medium of human interaction to extend
information, opinion, and feeling. By language, human beings can express
their ideas and communicate to other people. In every language there is a term
known as “four letters”. Four letters are words that are improper to be said and
known as swearwords. The swearword is used in non formal or non standard
vocabulary and the swearword belongs to any groups.
Some swear words are used to give pressure and explanation to the
statements. For example there are two statements: “that’s awesome and that’s
fucking awesome to something. The word “fucking” on the second statement
gives more value of pressure of amazed feeling. Nowadays, those words are
commonly heard not only in the crime world, but also by women who ought to
be polite and sensitive in talking. The writer finds these similar phenomena
dealing with utterances in the movie manuscript. In the manuscript, the writer
finds a lot of conversations which use swearwords. In “Bad Boys 2” movie
manuscript I found some interesting swear words such as
Roberto: “what kind of breed are they”
Marcus: “big motherfucker”
In this research, the writer will analyze the swearwords in the “Bad
Boys 2” movie in this script, she finds some conversation which is use word
with its situational context and its social relationship between the speaker, that
also describes who they are, where the conversation takes place, when, in what
situation and what language varieties and purposes are used. According to
Holmes (1992:1), “Sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language
and society”. Language that we use, in addition for extending information, can
be used for extending information about the participant themselves. For
example: age, gender, social status, the character and the participant’s belief”.
Moreover the sociolinguistic aspect will be coped according to Dell
Hymes in Wardhaugh (1986: 235) states speaking consists of: setting or scene,
participant, end, act sequence, key, instrument, norm and genre.
This research will discuss swearwords in “Bad Boys 2” movie
manuscript in a written text that is realizations of utterance uttered by the
actors in film with the title “Bad Boys 2".
B. Previous Study
The writer finds several researchers related to this research. First, Lilis
Kusumawati (2006), a UMS student conducted her study entitles “A Study on
Abusive Language in Drama Films Socio-Pragmatics Study”. The research
focused on Abusive language by using semantic theory especially types of
meaning and the varieties of abusive language. In her research, she analyzed
the referent of abusive language, the referent, the intention and the reasons of
using abusive language by applying speaking theory of Hymes.
Second, Khoirun Nafiah (2007) a UMS student conducted the study
entitles A Sociolinguistics Analysis of American Slang Used in Pretty Woman
Manuscript (Sociolinguistics Study). The research focused an analyzing slang
used in Pretty Woman movie manuscript
Based on the research above, the writer observes: Swear word in ‘Bad
Boys 2” movie manuscript. The writer analyzes the form of swearwords and
the reason of using swearword in “Bad Boys 2” movie manuscript.
C. Problem Statements
The research problems in this research are as follows:
1. What are the forms of swearwords used, in the “Bad Boys 2” movie?
2. What are the reasons of using swear words in the “Bad Boys 2” movie?
D. Objective of the Study
In line with the statement of the problem, the objectives of this study
1. to describes the forms of swearwords by the character in the “Bad Boys 2”
movie, and
2. to explain the reasons of using swear words in the “Bad Boys 2” movie.
E. Benefit of the Research
1. Theoretical benefit
To give additional information to linguistic researcher dealing with
sociolinguistics study of swearword
2. Practical benefit
a. The information could be appropriate input for readers in understanding
b. The study may be useful as references for other researchers to do
sociolinguistic research
F. Research Paper Organization
This research consists of five chapters:
Chapter I comprises background of the study, problem statements,
objective of the study, the benefit of the research, paper organization.
Chapter 2 discusses underlying theory that covers swearwords,
linguistics form, sociolinguistics, and sociolinguistic aspects.
Chapter 3 is research method that consists type of research, object of
research, data source, method of data collection, and technique of data
Chapter 4 presents research result and discussion of the finding.
Chapter 5 is conclusion and suggestion.

A. Sociolinguistics
Sociolinguistics comes from the formation of two words, which are
socio and linguistics. We know that socio relates with society while linguistics
studies all about language. For the clear explanation, Nababan (1993:12)
describes the meaning of sociolinguistics as follows: Sociolinguistics
constitutes the annexation from two words that are the word socio and
linguistic. It’ we see from each meaning, socio is everything that relates with
the society, society groups, and the social function. While linguistics is study
of language especially the language especially the language elements
(morpheme, phoneme, word and sentence).
Sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language and society
and identifies the social function of language. According to Holmes (1992: 1).
Sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language and society. They
are interested in explaining why we speak differently in different context. And
they are concerned with identifying the social function of language and the
ways it is used to covey social meaning.
Sociolinguistics analyzes the conversation word, for example: how
conversation’s organized, how people ask question and give answer.
Sociolinguistics also analyzes the conversation in any place like streets,
restaurants, shops, and etc.
The sociolinguistic aspects according Holmes (1992) consist of the
participant (social distance and social status), the background (place and time),
the topic, and the function. This is the explanation of those aspects:
1. Participants
The participants are people who are related to the event. The
participants consist of the speaker and the listener. The choices of
language variety between participants are influenced by:
a. Social distance
Social distance refers to how well we know the addressee; this
is the important factor that determines how we speak to them.
Generally, there are two kinds that related to the factors of intimate
relationship and distant relationship.
b. Social status
Social status relates to the position of someone in the society.
The way people speak can reflect the social status determined by job
and duty the economic background, politic, even descent. In the case
of participant status, there are two kinds of status, superior and
subordinate. A participant will try to use language form that is polite
and standard if he or she interacts to someone who has higher status.
For example the worker to the superior. On the contrary, simple
language will be used by someone to other who has lower status. A
worker will use the greeting “sir” or “mum” to the superior although
the superior is younger. This is the form of his respect. A superior has
the right to call his workers.
2. Background
The background shows the context from the event, like place and
time from the interaction. A speech event can happen anywhere, for
example in street, in office, at home, by day and night situation.
3. Topic and Function
What becomes the function of conversation and what becomes the
function the function of conversation will influence to the choices of
language form. If we see from the topic and the function of conversation,
there are two kinds of interaction, that is: informative (referential) and
interaction that involves the speaker feeling (affective). In the informative
interaction, the language form that used is simple language, for example
weather report. Simple language is needed to give clear information.
Affective is different from informative. Affective gives little information,
but the speaker’s feeling that holds the important role, for example when
ladies are gossiping. This function is expressive. In this research, the
writer will discuss about swearword that swearwords have the relationship
to above statements.
From the statements above, we can conclude that sociolinguistics
come from the formation of two words that are socio and linguistics. Socio
relates with all of society aspects, while linguistic studies all about
language. We ran say that sociolinguistics studies the relation between
language and society. Moreover, sociolinguistics is the study of language,
which is related to the participant of the language as a part of the society.
Moreover the research, the ethnography of communication explains about
sociolinguistics aspect.
B. Ethnography of Communication
The basic components of communication according to Dell Hymes in
Wardhaugh (1986: 235) consist of setting, scene, participant, ends, act
sequence, keys, instrumentalities, norms and genres (SPEAKING). He
explains all of that as follows:
S is setting or Scene
This is the place and situation which support the other event. Scene is
the abstract Psychological setting, or the cultural definition of the
P is participant
That is the combination between the speaker listener persons in the
communication (addressor, addressee). They have social role in a
E is ends
It is the conventionally recognized and expected outcomes of an
exchange as well as to the personal goals that participants seek to
accomplish on particular occasions.
A is act sequence
This is the actual form and content of what is said: the precise words
used, how they are used, and the relationship of what is said to the actual
topic at hand.
K is Keys
It is the way which is used in the top events
I is instrumentalities
It is the medium that is used: written or telegraph.
N is norm
This is the norms from the interaction
G is genre
It is the type of utterances for examples, poetry, advertisement, speech,
debate etc.
C. Swearwords
1. Notion of Swearwords
Swearwords are used to give pressure and explanation to the
statement. For example, there two statements: “that’s awesome and
“that’s fucking awesome”. Both statements have the same meaning that is
the amazed feeling to something. However, the word ‘fucking’ on the
second statement gives more value of the pressure on amazed feeling.
Swearword shows strong emotion and frustration and it is taboo.
Anderson & Trudgill (1992:53) define “swearword as (a) reference to
something taboo in a given culture, (b) to be interpreted non-literally and
(c) used to express strong emotions and attitudes”. Swearwords are
affirmations and declarations. They are words transcend their materiality
in taking on deeper meaning. They offend, they inspire, and they stir
emotions. They describe fear, surprise, anger, sadness, and happiness.
Swearwords are on exclamation point. People want to avoid of using
swearwords because they are vulgar, dirty and impolite in formal situation
whereas people use them when they need them in informal situation.
Crystal (1987:10) defines the function of swearwords as emotional
expression”, making no attempt to delineate them from other emotive
forms in language other than to say “swearwords and obscenities are
probably the commonest signals to be used in this way.
According to Wardhough (1986 : 230) “taboo is one way in which a
society express its disapproval of certain kind of behavior believed to be
harmful to its member either for super natural reasons or because such
behavior is held to violate a moral code”. The other version of swearwords
or taboo words is verbal, taboo, which is described by Hayagawa in
Escholz (1982: 247) “the phenomenon that occurs in almost all language
when the distinction between language and reality becomes confused”. In
the description of the verbal taboo, taboo words are expressed to give
expression to anger or annoyance, where at that moment we need rough
words or improper words to shows our anger.
Moreover, Robin (1992: 62) states swearwords often found in the
words that are used to convey anger, passion, etc. between unknown
people. Names of God and words which relate with the religion (the rest of
opinion that language has mysterious power), and words which regarded
as indecent, sometimes can decrease stress feeling of someone, if he or she
say that words.
From the statements, we can conclude that swearwords are words
that are considered taboo and bad by society. Swearwords express emotion
and explain oral realities that are cruel and vulgar, so incline to be avoided
in formal situation and are not accepted in social civilized community.
However, swear words are still used for the certain purposes, because
those are as social phenomenon of language.
Swear word has type according to OED XVIL 367 (in Gusworld)
that swearwords often found in the words that are used to express anger,
vexation or other strong feeling such as: surprise, annoyance, fear,
sadness, and happiness,
2. Types of English Swearwords
As swearwords are vulgar, dirty, and impolite assumed as
dangerous words to be used in daily conversation, it might be avoided
because it can make someone hurt. According to Hughes (1998: 208) the
varieties of English swearwords can be describe as the following
a. Word related to sex
According to Hughes (1998:207) that swearword dealing with
sexuality becomes the largest source in using words. He also states that
generally true that all the terms in the genital category have developed
quite a strong sense of “a worthless” or “fool”. In sexual term, there
are genital and anatomical sources of swearwords. For genital, there
are “prick, pillock (male genital), cunt, and twat (female genital)”. In
anatomical term, there is “asshole”.
b. Word from excrement
According to Hughes (1998:207) the swearwords in this
category include “shit, piss, turd, fart, and crap”.
Words from excrement generally assumed as dirty, disgusting
and rude if being done in public (http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki).
c. Word from name of animal
Actually the name of animal is not taboo at all. However, if
they are uttered or refer to the person, they may be considered as
swearwords. The swearwords in these terms are the animal categorized
weak, disgusting, beast or any other un pleasure criterions such as:
“cow, bitch, swine pig” (Hughes, 1998: 208).
d. Word related to personal background
Swearword in cluded in this category are spoken by the
participant to a person which is considered has a low status or
profession. It means to insult, degrade, or put down some one. Talking
to a person, as having a low status or profession is totally unacceptable
in public because it gains a great sensivity, hurt some one’s dignity.
The swearwords in this category are: “sod, bugger, fucker,
bastard, etc” (Hughes, 1998: 208).
e. Word from mental illness
English swearwords in this category are used as symbol of
people with mental illness (Hughes, 1998: 208). The function of such
terms is to degrade someone (http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki). The
examples are “idiot, crazy, moron, cretin, prat, etc” (Hughes,
f. Word related to sex activities
Word deals with the term of having sex activities with
somebody. It can be considered as vulgar word, such as: fuck (Hughes,
1998: 208).
D. Linguistics Forms
1. Word
Katamba (1994:1) states that word is the smallest meaningful
linguistics unit that can be used on its own. Word is the basic meaningful
element in a language. Unit means to carry by unit more complex that the
single word and by various structures and linguistics devices.
For example: car.
There are some types of words according to its part of speech, for
examples Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, preposition and conjunction.
a. Noun
Noun is the word which the position can be subject and object. It
consists of name of person and thing. Its arrangement with the verb
helps to form the sentence core which is essential to every complete
sentence. For example; I don’t know what the fuck you mean
b. Verbs
Verb is the word that shows what a person or number does. Its
varying arrangements with nouns, determine the different kinds of
sentences, statements, questions, commands and exclamations. For
example; Ecstasy fucks them up
c. Adjective
Adjective is the word that describes a noun and its most usual
position is before the noun it modifies. For example; Theresa, cancel
the damn cable.
2. Phrase
Phrase is a single element of structure typically consists of more
than one word. De Boer (1982: 49) states that phrase is often defined as a
related word without subject and predicate. From the definition above, it
can be concluded that:
a. Phrase contains more than one word
b. Phrase contains without subject and predicate.
There are kind of phrase, such as:
a. Noun phrase
Noun phrase is a group of word that has a noun as the head. The
head can modify by adjective, adverb, noun, gerund, and participle.
Example: Oh Jesus
b. Adjective phrase
Adjectives phrase is a group of words which an adjective as
head. It is usually modified by adjective or adverb.
Example: fucking bitches
c. Verb phrase
Verb phrase is words which verb as the head.
Example: that shit's fucking annoying.
d. Adverb phrase
Adverb phrase is a phrase which an adverb as the head.
Example: It’s fucking beautiful.

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CHASANAH, Neini Nur (2009)
This study aims at describing the elements which build the cohesion of Linkin Park’s songs in album “Hibrid Theory” and identifying the lexical and grammatical cohesion in Linkin Park’s songs. This research is descriptive qualitative study which analyzes the elements of cohesion of the song lyric. The data are lexical and grammatical cohesion found in Linkin Park’s song lyric in album “Hibrid Theory”. The writer collects the data by reading the song lyric, putting sign and making list on grammatical and lexical cohesion in song lyric, gathering the data grammatical and lexical cohesion. The result shows that the signal cohesion in Linkin Park’s songs consists of: (1) grammatical cohesion consisting of reference; personal and demonstrative reference, substitution, ellipsis and conjunction and (2) lexical cohesion consisting of repetition, synonym, hyponym, and antonym

A. Background of the Study
People cannot live without language, because language is very
important in communication. Communication is a process of transferring
message from a sender (the speaker) to a receiver (the hearer). The sender is
one who sends a message and the receiver is one who receives the message.
The sender sends a message containing his or her intention that should be
understood by the receiver. The message is an utterance that contains
intention, which is uttered by the sender to the receiver and then he or she
interprets it in order to understand the sender’s intention. Language is very
effective for human to interact with other people in communication. It can not
break with society use. Language is used for pleasant society shaped by lyric
song given by song.
Songs generally convey message and meaning, where the composer
needs time to think, to choose the words, to read, what she or he writes, to
rethink, revise and arrange it. Then he or she considers its effect on the
listener. Songs have special characteristics in their lyric. Each lyric is created
to have nuance.
The sentences of a certain lyric of the song are also shortened and
unfinished. Sometimes, the sentences are not grammatical either. However,
the composer arranges a group of words correctly and chooses them in order
to complete the idea of the songs. As usual he or she has provenience to
choose words for getting the beautiful lyrics. Lyrics of song is not only the
arrangement of words into sentence but also the representation of the
composer’s emotion, and intention to describe their feeling such as love,
struggle, trouble, jealous, peace, politic, anti social, etc. The composer makes
the music as a part of their need. Through music they can express their felling
and experience in the lyrics.
Linkin Park is a group music whose lyrics are about love. It is a band
which has many fans especially young generation. Beside that, Linkin Park is
a successful rock musician, whose album “Hybrid Theory” received three
Grammy nominations, for Best Rock Album and Best New Artist. Album
such as “ Crawling “ and “One Stop Closer” were massive radio hits and
video favorites among the TRL Crowd on MTV. Revolution Tour with
Cypress Hill led the band to play 324 show in 2001 Linkin park was in
demand come January 2002, Hybrid Theory received three Grammy
nominations, for best rock Album and Best New Artist, a month later, Linkin
Park walked away with an award for best Hard Rock performance for
“Crawling”. They spent the reminder of the year holed up in the studio, again
working with Gilmore, recording a follow-up to their eight times Platinum
debut Hybrid Theory.
Linkin Park is an American rock band from Agoura Hills, California.
Since their formation in 1996, the band has sold more than 50 million albums
and won two Grammy Awards. They achieved mainstream success with their
debut album, Hybrid Theory, which was certified Diamond by the RIAA in
2005. Their following studio album, Meteora, continued the band's success,
topping the Billboard 200’s album charts in 2003, and was followed by
extensive touring and charity work around the world.
Recognized for their adaptation of the new metal and rap rock genre
into a radio-friendly style in Hybrid Theory and Meteora, the band moved
away from this and explored a variety of other genres in their latest studio
album, Minutes to Midnight. The album topped the Billboard charts and had
the third best debut week of any album that year. They are also known for
their several collaborations, most notably with rapper Jay-Z in their mash-up
album Collision Course, and many other artists on Reanimation.
The personal of Linkin Parks originally consists of three high school
friends, Anchored by Mike Shinoda and Brad Delson along with Rob
Bourdon. After graduating from high school, the California natives began to
take their musical interests more seriously, recruiting Joe Hahn, Dave
"Phoenix" Farrell, and Mark Wakefield to perform in their band then titled
Xero. Though limited in resources, the band began recording and producing
songs within Shinoda’s make-shift bedroom studio in 1996. Tensions and
frustration within the band grew after they failed to land a record deal. The
lack of success and stalemate in progress prompted Wakefield, at that time the
band's vocalist, to leave the band in search for other projects. Farrell would
also leave the band to tour with Tasty Snax and other bands.
After spending a considerable time searching for Wakefield's
replacement, Xero recruited Arizona, the vocalist of Chester Bennington. Jeff
Blue, the vice president of Zomba Music, had referred him to the band in
March 1999. Bennington, formerly of Grey Daze, became a standout among
applicants on account of his unique singing style. The band changed their
name from Xero to Hybrid Theory. The newborn vocal chemistry between
Shinoda and Bennington helped revive the band, inciting them to work on new
material. The band’s renaissance culminated with a change in name; from
Hybrid Theory, the band changed their name to Linkin Park, a play on and
homage to Santa Monica’s Lincoln Park. However, despite these changes, the
band still struggled to sign a record deal. After facing numerous rejections
from several major record labels, Linkin Park turned to Jeff Blue for
additional help. After failing to catch Warner Bros Records on three previous
reviews, Jeff Blue, now the vice president of Warner Bros Records, helped the
band sign a deal with the company in 1999. The band released their
breakthrough album, Hybrid Theory, the following year.
Linkin Park released Hybrid Theory on October 24, 2000. The album,
which represented half a decade’s worth of the band’s work, was edited by
music producer Don Gilmore. Hybrid Theory was well received by music
fans; the band sold more than 4.8 million records during its debut year,
earning it the status of best-selling album of 2001, while singles such as
“Crawling” and “One Step Closer” established themselves as staples among
alternative rock radio play lists during the year Additionally, other singles
from the album were featured in movies such as Dracula 2000, Little Nicky,
and Valentine. Hybrid Theory was also nominated for three Grammy Awards,
including best new artist, best rock album, and best hard rock performance
(for “Crawling”). MTV awarded the band their Best Rock Video and Best
Direction awards for “In the End”. Through the winning of the Grammy for
best hard rock performance, Hybrid Theory’s overall success had catapulted
the band into the mainstream's attention.
During this time, Linkin Park received many invitations to perform on
many high-profile tours and concerts including Ozzfest, Family Values Tour
and KROQ Almost Acoustic Christmas. The band also formed their own tour,
Projekt Revolution, which featured other notable artists such as, Cypress Hill,
Adema, and Snoop Dogg. Within a year’s stretch, Linkin Park had performed
at over 320 concerts. The experiences and performances of the precocious
band were documented in their first DVD, Frat Party at the Pankake Festival,
which debuted in November 2001. Now reunited with former bassist Dave
Farrell, the band began working on a remix album, dubbed Reanimation,
which would include works from Hybrid Theory and Hybrid Theory EP.
Reanimation debuted on July 30, 2002, featuring Black Thought, Jonathan
Davis, Aaron Lewis, and many others. Reanimation claimed the second spot
on the Billboard 200, and sold nearly 270,000 copies during its debut week.
The writer is interested in this topic because the lyrics in Linkin Park
songs are simple but there are some words repeated so the writer finds a
cohesion signal. In addition, the album Hybrid Theory received the best rock
album and best new artist. This research tries to find the cohesion signal in the
lyric of Linkin Park’s song so the cohesion signal is change.
This research focuses on signal cohesion used in the lyric of Linkin
Park’s song. Cohesion which is used to combine the sentence consists of
lexical and grammatical cohesion. Cohesion is the formal links that mark
various types of inter-clause and inter-sentence relationship within discourse.
According to Halliday and Hasan (104: 1992), cohesion can be divided
into two types: grammatical cohesion and lexical cohesion. The previous
refers to a combination of terms between sentences that form grammatical
aspect. The latter refers to a combination of terms between sentences that form
lexical component.
Grammatical cohesion can be divided into 4 kinds. Firstly, reference is
a grammatical cohesion device in a text that can only be interpreted with
reference either to some other parts of the text or to the world experienced by
the sender and receiver of the text. Secondly, substitution is the use of
proforms to represent earlier mentioned entities or event. Thirdly, ellipsis is a
grammatical cohesion that ellipsis a substance language that is mentioned.
Fourthly, conjunction is a grammatical cohesion that link one substance to
another substance in discourse.
According to Halliday and Hasan (1976), lexical cohesion is divided
into five. Firstly, Hyponymy is a lexical cohesion that relationship between
constituent that has general meaning called sub ordinate and constituent that
specific meaning called hyponymy. Secondly, Synonym is the words that have
similarity in meaning. Thirdly, Antonym is lexical cohesion that relationship
between constituents that have different meaning. Fourthly, Repetition is
lexical cohesion that repeats the constituent. Fifthly, Collocation is the regular
pattern of relationships between words.
Based on the discussion the cohesion as a sign relationship such as
grammatical and lexical cohesion, the researcher tries to find the signal
relationship or signal cohesion and looks for the harmony relationship in
Linkin Park’s song in Album “Hybrid Theory”.
The writer chooses title for her research “AN ANALYSIS OF
B. Previous Study
The writer presents the previous researches that deal especially with
cohesion. The first is Andriana (2006) who analyzed discourse analysis of
short story D.H. Lawrence’s “The Horse Dealer’s Daughter” a discourse“. She
described the elements forming a discourse based on the seven criteria. She
focused on cohesion, coherence, intentionality, acceptability, informativity,
situationality and inter textuality.
The second is Wahyu Setiyanto (2006) in Analisis Penanda Kohesi
Grammatikal pada Buku Ilmiah Pengakuan Pelacur Jogya Karya Wahyudin:
Pendekatan Mikrostruktural found the signal used consist of reference,
substitution, Ellipsis and conjunction. He focused on signal grammatical
cohesion with micro structure.
The third is Sumaryanto (2004) in Analisis Alat Kohesi dalam Album
Syukur dan Gema Alam pada Teks Lagu Raihan. He analyzed cohesion as a
connection between sentences. The cohesion of discourse within the text of
Raihan song consisted of grammatical cohesion, which comprised of
reference, substitution, ellipsis and conjunction. Besides, he also used lexical
cohesion such as repetition, synonym and antonym.
In this study, the writer analyzed “AN ANAYSIS OF LEXICAL AND
the term and kind of cohesion both grammatical and lexical cohesion in Linkin
Park songs.
C. Limitation of Study
This research focuses on the cohesion found in Linkin Park’s songs
namely ”Paper Cut, One Step Closer, With You, Points of Authority
Crawling, Run Away, By Myself, In The End, A Place for My Head,
Forgotten, Pushing Me Away”. Cohesion analyzed in Linkin Park’s songs is
in term of discourse combination consisting of grammatical and lexical
D. Problem Statement
Knowing the problem is the most important part in research. The
writer decides some problems that will be discussed here. The problems are
formulated as follows.
1. What are the kinds of grammatical cohesion used in the lyrics of Linkin
Park songs?
2. What are the kinds of lexical cohesion used in the lyrics of Linkin Park
E. Objective the Study
Based on the problem statement above, the objectives of the study are
1. describe the grammatical cohesion in the lyric of Linkin Park songs,
2. describe the lexical cohesion in the lyric of Linkin Park songs,
F. Benefit of Study
The writer hopes this study will have the benefits for anyone who
reads it.
1. Practical benefit
The readers will understanding about the grammatical and lexical
2. Theoretical benefit
This research can be used as an additional reference for the next
researchers, especially those who are interested in the study of discourse
G. Paper Organization
The writer organizes this thesis in order to make it easier to
understand. The research paper is divided into five chapters.
Chapter I is introduction which consists of the background of the
study, previous study, the problem statements, the objective of the study, the
benefit of the study and paper organization.
Chapter II deals with underlying theory: the Typical Language of Song,
Discourse Analysis, the Type of discourse, Cohesion and Coherence,
theoretical framework.
Chapter III is research method. It concerns the type of study, the object
of study, data and data source, the method of data collection, and the
technique of analyzing data.
Chapter IV is analysis and discussion. This chapter deals with data
analysis, data discussion and the discussion of finding.
Chapter V is conclusion. This last chapter involves conclusion and

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