CHASANAH, Neini Nur (2009)
This study aims at describing the elements which build the cohesion of Linkin Park’s songs in album “Hibrid Theory” and identifying the lexical and grammatical cohesion in Linkin Park’s songs. This research is descriptive qualitative study which analyzes the elements of cohesion of the song lyric. The data are lexical and grammatical cohesion found in Linkin Park’s song lyric in album “Hibrid Theory”. The writer collects the data by reading the song lyric, putting sign and making list on grammatical and lexical cohesion in song lyric, gathering the data grammatical and lexical cohesion. The result shows that the signal cohesion in Linkin Park’s songs consists of: (1) grammatical cohesion consisting of reference; personal and demonstrative reference, substitution, ellipsis and conjunction and (2) lexical cohesion consisting of repetition, synonym, hyponym, and antonym
A. Background of the Study
People cannot live without language, because language is very
important in communication. Communication is a process of transferring
message from a sender (the speaker) to a receiver (the hearer). The sender is
one who sends a message and the receiver is one who receives the message.
The sender sends a message containing his or her intention that should be
understood by the receiver. The message is an utterance that contains
intention, which is uttered by the sender to the receiver and then he or she
interprets it in order to understand the sender’s intention. Language is very
effective for human to interact with other people in communication. It can not
break with society use. Language is used for pleasant society shaped by lyric
song given by song.
Songs generally convey message and meaning, where the composer
needs time to think, to choose the words, to read, what she or he writes, to
rethink, revise and arrange it. Then he or she considers its effect on the
listener. Songs have special characteristics in their lyric. Each lyric is created
to have nuance.
The sentences of a certain lyric of the song are also shortened and
unfinished. Sometimes, the sentences are not grammatical either. However,
the composer arranges a group of words correctly and chooses them in order
to complete the idea of the songs. As usual he or she has provenience to
choose words for getting the beautiful lyrics. Lyrics of song is not only the
arrangement of words into sentence but also the representation of the
composer’s emotion, and intention to describe their feeling such as love,
struggle, trouble, jealous, peace, politic, anti social, etc. The composer makes
the music as a part of their need. Through music they can express their felling
and experience in the lyrics.
Linkin Park is a group music whose lyrics are about love. It is a band
which has many fans especially young generation. Beside that, Linkin Park is
a successful rock musician, whose album “Hybrid Theory” received three
Grammy nominations, for Best Rock Album and Best New Artist. Album
such as “ Crawling “ and “One Stop Closer” were massive radio hits and
video favorites among the TRL Crowd on MTV. Revolution Tour with
Cypress Hill led the band to play 324 show in 2001 Linkin park was in
demand come January 2002, Hybrid Theory received three Grammy
nominations, for best rock Album and Best New Artist, a month later, Linkin
Park walked away with an award for best Hard Rock performance for
“Crawling”. They spent the reminder of the year holed up in the studio, again
working with Gilmore, recording a follow-up to their eight times Platinum
debut Hybrid Theory.
Linkin Park is an American rock band from Agoura Hills, California.
Since their formation in 1996, the band has sold more than 50 million albums
and won two Grammy Awards. They achieved mainstream success with their
debut album, Hybrid Theory, which was certified Diamond by the RIAA in
2005. Their following studio album, Meteora, continued the band's success,
topping the Billboard 200’s album charts in 2003, and was followed by
extensive touring and charity work around the world.
Recognized for their adaptation of the new metal and rap rock genre
into a radio-friendly style in Hybrid Theory and Meteora, the band moved
away from this and explored a variety of other genres in their latest studio
album, Minutes to Midnight. The album topped the Billboard charts and had
the third best debut week of any album that year. They are also known for
their several collaborations, most notably with rapper Jay-Z in their mash-up
album Collision Course, and many other artists on Reanimation.
The personal of Linkin Parks originally consists of three high school
friends, Anchored by Mike Shinoda and Brad Delson along with Rob
Bourdon. After graduating from high school, the California natives began to
take their musical interests more seriously, recruiting Joe Hahn, Dave
"Phoenix" Farrell, and Mark Wakefield to perform in their band then titled
Xero. Though limited in resources, the band began recording and producing
songs within Shinoda’s make-shift bedroom studio in 1996. Tensions and
frustration within the band grew after they failed to land a record deal. The
lack of success and stalemate in progress prompted Wakefield, at that time the
band's vocalist, to leave the band in search for other projects. Farrell would
also leave the band to tour with Tasty Snax and other bands.
After spending a considerable time searching for Wakefield's
replacement, Xero recruited Arizona, the vocalist of Chester Bennington. Jeff
Blue, the vice president of Zomba Music, had referred him to the band in
March 1999. Bennington, formerly of Grey Daze, became a standout among
applicants on account of his unique singing style. The band changed their
name from Xero to Hybrid Theory. The newborn vocal chemistry between
Shinoda and Bennington helped revive the band, inciting them to work on new
material. The band’s renaissance culminated with a change in name; from
Hybrid Theory, the band changed their name to Linkin Park, a play on and
homage to Santa Monica’s Lincoln Park. However, despite these changes, the
band still struggled to sign a record deal. After facing numerous rejections
from several major record labels, Linkin Park turned to Jeff Blue for
additional help. After failing to catch Warner Bros Records on three previous
reviews, Jeff Blue, now the vice president of Warner Bros Records, helped the
band sign a deal with the company in 1999. The band released their
breakthrough album, Hybrid Theory, the following year.
Linkin Park released Hybrid Theory on October 24, 2000. The album,
which represented half a decade’s worth of the band’s work, was edited by
music producer Don Gilmore. Hybrid Theory was well received by music
fans; the band sold more than 4.8 million records during its debut year,
earning it the status of best-selling album of 2001, while singles such as
“Crawling” and “One Step Closer” established themselves as staples among
alternative rock radio play lists during the year Additionally, other singles
from the album were featured in movies such as Dracula 2000, Little Nicky,
and Valentine. Hybrid Theory was also nominated for three Grammy Awards,
including best new artist, best rock album, and best hard rock performance
(for “Crawling”). MTV awarded the band their Best Rock Video and Best
Direction awards for “In the End”. Through the winning of the Grammy for
best hard rock performance, Hybrid Theory’s overall success had catapulted
the band into the mainstream's attention.
During this time, Linkin Park received many invitations to perform on
many high-profile tours and concerts including Ozzfest, Family Values Tour
and KROQ Almost Acoustic Christmas. The band also formed their own tour,
Projekt Revolution, which featured other notable artists such as, Cypress Hill,
Adema, and Snoop Dogg. Within a year’s stretch, Linkin Park had performed
at over 320 concerts. The experiences and performances of the precocious
band were documented in their first DVD, Frat Party at the Pankake Festival,
which debuted in November 2001. Now reunited with former bassist Dave
Farrell, the band began working on a remix album, dubbed Reanimation,
which would include works from Hybrid Theory and Hybrid Theory EP.
Reanimation debuted on July 30, 2002, featuring Black Thought, Jonathan
Davis, Aaron Lewis, and many others. Reanimation claimed the second spot
on the Billboard 200, and sold nearly 270,000 copies during its debut week.
The writer is interested in this topic because the lyrics in Linkin Park
songs are simple but there are some words repeated so the writer finds a
cohesion signal. In addition, the album Hybrid Theory received the best rock
album and best new artist. This research tries to find the cohesion signal in the
lyric of Linkin Park’s song so the cohesion signal is change.
This research focuses on signal cohesion used in the lyric of Linkin
Park’s song. Cohesion which is used to combine the sentence consists of
lexical and grammatical cohesion. Cohesion is the formal links that mark
various types of inter-clause and inter-sentence relationship within discourse.
According to Halliday and Hasan (104: 1992), cohesion can be divided
into two types: grammatical cohesion and lexical cohesion. The previous
refers to a combination of terms between sentences that form grammatical
aspect. The latter refers to a combination of terms between sentences that form
Grammatical cohesion can be divided into 4 kinds. Firstly, reference is
a grammatical cohesion device in a text that can only be interpreted with
reference either to some other parts of the text or to the world experienced by
the sender and receiver of the text. Secondly, substitution is the use of
proforms to represent earlier mentioned entities or event. Thirdly, ellipsis is a
grammatical cohesion that ellipsis a substance language that is mentioned.
Fourthly, conjunction is a grammatical cohesion that link one substance to
another substance in discourse.
According to Halliday and Hasan (1976), lexical cohesion is divided
into five. Firstly, Hyponymy is a lexical cohesion that relationship between
constituent that has general meaning called sub ordinate and constituent that
specific meaning called hyponymy. Secondly, Synonym is the words that have
similarity in meaning. Thirdly, Antonym is lexical cohesion that relationship
between constituents that have different meaning. Fourthly, Repetition is
lexical cohesion that repeats the constituent. Fifthly, Collocation is the regular
pattern of relationships between words.
Based on the discussion the cohesion as a sign relationship such as
grammatical and lexical cohesion, the researcher tries to find the signal
relationship or signal cohesion and looks for the harmony relationship in
Linkin Park’s song in Album “Hybrid Theory”.
The writer chooses title for her research “AN ANALYSIS OF
LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL COHESION IN LINKIN PARK’S
B. Previous Study
The writer presents the previous researches that deal especially with
cohesion. The first is Andriana (2006) who analyzed discourse analysis of
short story D.H. Lawrence’s “The Horse Dealer’s Daughter” a discourse“. She
described the elements forming a discourse based on the seven criteria. She
focused on cohesion, coherence, intentionality, acceptability, informativity,
situationality and inter textuality.
The second is Wahyu Setiyanto (2006) in Analisis Penanda Kohesi
Grammatikal pada Buku Ilmiah Pengakuan Pelacur Jogya Karya Wahyudin:
Pendekatan Mikrostruktural found the signal used consist of reference,
substitution, Ellipsis and conjunction. He focused on signal grammatical
cohesion with micro structure.
The third is Sumaryanto (2004) in Analisis Alat Kohesi dalam Album
Syukur dan Gema Alam pada Teks Lagu Raihan. He analyzed cohesion as a
connection between sentences. The cohesion of discourse within the text of
Raihan song consisted of grammatical cohesion, which comprised of
reference, substitution, ellipsis and conjunction. Besides, he also used lexical
cohesion such as repetition, synonym and antonym.
In this study, the writer analyzed “AN ANAYSIS OF LEXICAL AND
GRAMMATICAL COHESION IN LINKIN PARK’S SONG’’. She described
the term and kind of cohesion both grammatical and lexical cohesion in Linkin
C. Limitation of Study
This research focuses on the cohesion found in Linkin Park’s songs
namely ”Paper Cut, One Step Closer, With You, Points of Authority
Crawling, Run Away, By Myself, In The End, A Place for My Head,
Forgotten, Pushing Me Away”. Cohesion analyzed in Linkin Park’s songs is
in term of discourse combination consisting of grammatical and lexical
D. Problem Statement
Knowing the problem is the most important part in research. The
writer decides some problems that will be discussed here. The problems are
formulated as follows.
1. What are the kinds of grammatical cohesion used in the lyrics of Linkin
2. What are the kinds of lexical cohesion used in the lyrics of Linkin Park
E. Objective the Study
Based on the problem statement above, the objectives of the study are
1. describe the grammatical cohesion in the lyric of Linkin Park songs,
2. describe the lexical cohesion in the lyric of Linkin Park songs,
F. Benefit of Study
The writer hopes this study will have the benefits for anyone who
1. Practical benefit
The readers will understanding about the grammatical and lexical
2. Theoretical benefit
This research can be used as an additional reference for the next
researchers, especially those who are interested in the study of discourse
G. Paper Organization
The writer organizes this thesis in order to make it easier to
understand. The research paper is divided into five chapters.
Chapter I is introduction which consists of the background of the
study, previous study, the problem statements, the objective of the study, the
benefit of the study and paper organization.
Chapter II deals with underlying theory: the Typical Language of Song,
Discourse Analysis, the Type of discourse, Cohesion and Coherence,
Chapter III is research method. It concerns the type of study, the object
of study, data and data source, the method of data collection, and the
technique of analyzing data.
Chapter IV is analysis and discussion. This chapter deals with data
analysis, data discussion and the discussion of finding.
Chapter V is conclusion. This last chapter involves conclusion and
Sunday, April 24, 2011
CHASANAH, Neini Nur (2009)