Sunday, April 24, 2011


FAUZANAH, Rahmawati (2009)
This research belongs to a descriptive qualitative research. The aims of this research are to find out the translation variation of English complex sentences and to describe the translation equivalences of complex sentences in the novel The Scarlet Letter and its translations. The data of this research paper are complex sentence and their translation found in novel The Scarlet Letter consisting of 254 pages, and the researcher finds 110 data in complex sentences. The results of the research shows that there are 6 variation of translation complex sentences namely: (1) complex sentences are translated into complex sentences 43 data or 39,09%, (2) complex sentences are translation into simple sentences 37 data or 33,64%, (3) complex sentences are translated into compound sentences 5 data or 4,54%, (4) complex sentences are translated into compound-complex sentences 3 data or 2,72%, (5) complex sentences translated into two sentences or more 4 data or 3,36%, and (6) complex sentences are translated into omitted or deleted 18 data or 16,36%. Therefore, it can be concluded that research are complex sentences are translated into complex sentences. There are 61 data or 55,45% data belong to the equivalence translation and there are 49 data or 44,45% data belong to nonequivalence translation. Therefore, it can be concluded that research are equivalence translation.

A. Background of the Study
Language is an important thing in human life. Through languages, people
can communicate with each other. By using language, they can express their
thoughts, idea, feeling, intentions, etc. This means that they will always be dealing
with form of sound symbol of a language in daily communication. In other words,
language is not just a flow of utterances but is has an important role in human life.
Language is a tool that used by people to express their thoughts and
feeling, their willing and their behaviors; a tool that used to be influence and to be
influenced, and language is a first base and rooted for human society.
From the above statement, it can be concluded that language cannot be
separated from human life. Human always need it in their life.
There are many languages in the world. All are used and developed well
by the users. One of the languages is English. Now days English plays great role
in the world. Especially in our country, Indonesia, English now takes a more
important role because Indonesia is still developing country and its people need to
keep up with what modern countries have achieved.
English is used as international language for many years. By which
information and science are spread out. There are many books are written English.
Many efforts have been to translate English book into Indonesian. It is done
because there are a few people who can understand and communicate in English.
Translating English into Indonesian is not easy thing to do. It needs an enough
capability. Nida (1964: 150) says that :s
A translator must have a satisfactory knowledge of the source language.
He must understand not only obvious content of message but also the
subtleties of the meaning, the significant emotive values of words, and
the stylistic features which determine the flavor and the feel of the
message. Even more important that knowledge of the resources of the
language is a control of the receptor language
From the previous statement, know that a translator must have reliable
knowledge and experience in this field. As a communicator, moreover, the
knowledge and skills related to all communicators have to possessed. He has to
access the target language knowledge, text-type knowledge, sources language
knowledge, subject area (real world) knowledge and contrastive knowledge
(Roger T Bell, 1997: 36).
Translating literary work, of course more complex than other works. A
translator has to be experience or at least he knows the social cultural background
of the source language writer. He also to understand the basic concept of literary
work and basic concept to analyze literary work.
To translating literary work text, the translator usually finds difficulties to
translate the aesthetic and expressive elements. The translator has to mountain the
beauty of words, the beauty of rhythm and the atmosphere as well as the
expression of the writer. In literary work, the writer expresses him self in a
beautiful way. The expression that is written in a language must be transferred by
the translator text because a translator is a mediator between the writer and the
readers of the target language. Because the problems of translating literary work
are so complex, it is a must for the translator to master both source and target
language in which the original literary work is written should be, at least, it should
be mastered in the receptive and productive degree. Then the ideal translator are
those whose native language is the target language.
In literary work, the writer expresses himself in many kinds of sentences.
And making a complex sentence is more challenging of the very large variety of
clause signals to choose from the many combinations. Know that complex
sentence consist of the one of main clause and one more dependent clause which
are very various and have many possibilities to post.
Complex sentences can be used to judge whether a work is written in a
good way or not. B y which it can be know how accuracy and various of the
writing of work. Joseph and Zalmer (2003: 365) says that “……..they are the best
means of eliminating choppy sentences and of giving accuracy of literary work,
will not be satisfied until he has cut down the number of the simple or compound
sentences and increase the number of the complex sentences. By using more
complex sentences, it can show the mature thinking of the writer. The more
mature writer will see the difference between an important ideal and more detail.
To make hers writing more accurate and everything equal, a writer will build hers
main idea into part of hers sentence and tuck the detail into clause. In other word,
she writers more complex sentences.
The using of complex sentences in work also does not show the dullness
of the sentences because of the variety of the sentences in its paragraphs
and subordinate clause, on the other hand, expresses the relations of the writer’s
ideas. So it makes the readers do not have monotonous sense to the work and
show the empathy of its paragraphs.
To translate complex sentence, first a translator has to be able to identify
which the main clauses are and which the dependent clauses are. Complex
sentences are not always translated into complex sentences too. They are
sometimes translated into compound sentences or into two single sentences. It can
be seen that translating complex sentences will deal with the complexities of
problem. Complex sentences, moreover, sometimes have a subordinate clause that
is not completely expressed. It demand the ability of the translator to predict how
the first complete sentence is to make her easy to translate.
The novel of the scarlet letter is one of English literary work. It is written
by Nathaniel Hawthorne and translated into Indonesia entitled scarlet letter by
Olenka Munif. Nathaniel Hawthorne is a great black man writer born on July 4,
1804, in Salem, Massachusetts. In the novel of the scarlet letter, the researcher
finds many kinds of complex sentences. Here are some them and their translation:
1) SL : When the young woman-the mother of this child stood fully revealed
Before the crowd.
TL : Ketika wanita muda ini-ibu dari si bayi-berdiri tegak di tengah
Kerumunan, ia mendekaperat-erat anaknya.
Both the SL and the TL show complex sentences, because there is an
independent clause (SL: it seemed to be her first impulse to clasp the infact
closely to her bosom, TL: ia mendekap erat-erat anaknya ) and a dependent
clause (SL: When the young woman-the mother of this child-stood fully revealed
before the crowd, TL: Ketika wanita muda ini-ibu dari si bayi-bardiri tegak di
tengah kerumunan) with conjunction (when which is translated into ketika)
connecting the independent clause and the dependent clause.
2) SL : Before she saw him, the stranger had bent his eyes on Hester Prynne.
TL : Sebelum Hester melihatnya, pria asing itu telah memusatkan
Pandangannya ke arah Hester.
Both the SL and TL show complex sentences, because there is an
independent clause (SL: the stranger had bent his eyes on Hester Prynne, TL:
pria asing itu telah memusatkan pandangannya kea rah Hester) and a dependent
clause (SL: Before she saw him, TL: Sebelum Hester melihatnya) with
conjunction (Before which is translated into Sebelum) connecting the independent
clause and the dependent clause.
3) SL : The far and the longing were too much for him, so he began to think
of other things.
TL : Ketakutan dan kerinduan menjadi terlalu menyusahkan baginya,
maka dia mulai berpikir tentang hal-hal lain.
As can be seen in the example above, the ST is a complex sentences that
consist of one independent clause (The fear and the longing were too much for
him) and one dependent clause (so he began o think of other things). Both clauses
are connected by conjunction so. Mean while, the TL is translated into simple
sentence that consists of two independent clauses(Ketakutan dan karinduan
menjadikan terlalu menyusahkan baginya) and (dia mulai berpikir tentang hal-hal
Considering the three sentences above, it can be seen that they are English
complex sentences that are connected by the conjunction when, before, so, and
translated into Indonesian complex sentences that are marked by the conjunctions
ketika, sebelum, maka and translating them will be deal with the
complexities of problems. The translator does not just pay attention to the intra
linguistic aspects of the target language, but also the extra linguistics aspects
including social-cultural for a translator to understand. He has to know the socialcultural
background of the source language and the target language.
Talking about culture, it can’t be separated from the language. There is a
strong interaction between them because language is the heart of the body of the
culture. So it results something like life energy that continuously exists. No
language can exist unless it is steeped in the context of culture are two items that
relate each other. Against this translating language can not neglect the existing of
the culture of both language.
Based on the phenomena above, it is interesting to analyze the complex
sentences from the cultural point of view. By analyzing complex sentences of a
work writing, and the sense of the readers to the writing of the work. Therefore, it
is significant in the novel of the scarlet letter from the cultural point of view
B. Previous Study
To support this research, two research will be presented as follows, first ;
the research was conduched by Rananingsih, 2004, UNES, entitled Analisis
Terjemahan Kalimat Majemuk Bahasa Indonesia ke dalam Bahasa Inggris dalam
Roman Belenggu Versi Bahasa Inggris Terjemahan John H. Meglyn. Rana uses
50% from the population or 75 complex sentences from population as her sample
to answer her problem statement. The important result are found from research
are : Most of the data are translated by free translation (there are 48 sentences =
64% from the data), and the residues are translated by word-for-word translation
(there are 27 sentences = 36% from the data). Then she finds that the structural
changes occurred here. From her data, are a lot of complex sentences which
change their structure in the TL. But she concludes that it does not influence the
meaning that wants to be conveyed by writer of the SL to the readers. It means
that almost of data are translated correctly (97,3% ) and just 2,7% from the data
are translated incorrectly.
Secondly, the research is conducted by Rahman, 2006, UNY, entitled An
Analysis of Indonesian Translation of Complex Sentences in The Short Story
Entitled “Sherlock Holmes: The Dancing Men” By Athur Conan Doyle.
In this research, Rahman analyzed the accuracy and strategy in English
Complex Sentences. Translation at the novel entitled “Sherlock Holmes : The
Dancing Man”. On his research, he included that there are 36% of complex
sentences found in the novel (50) are translated into simple sentences, 22% are
translated into two simple sentences or more, 20% are omitted, 4% are translated
into compound sentences, and the rest (2%) are translated into compoundcomplex
sentences. Rahman look on discussion that 58% among 50 data in the
novel are translated correctly, and 42% of them are translated incorrectly by the
The important result that are found in her thesis are the translator does not
have enough capability to translate the complex sentences in the novel, so the
result of translation is not good because the translator does not used “good”
harmony with the principle of Indonesian. Sometimes, the usage of prefix,
conjunction, and second singular personal pronoun in that translation is not
appropriate. In addition, the translator sometimes throws the important word a
way in translating the sentences. Consequently; the translation looses its meaning.
While, the writer has similar analyzing but the data and data source is
different. In this research, the writer focuses on the translation of complex
sentences and uses the data as the data source.
C. Research Problem
Considering the research background, the problems proposed in thus study
are as follows:
1. What are the translation variations of the English complex sentences in the
novel The Scarlet Letter ? and
2. In terms of transfers of message, how is the translation equivalence of
complex sentences ?
D. Limitation of the Study
In fact, there are various type of sentences in the novel The Scarlet Letter
such as complex sentence, compound sentence, simple sentence, etc.In this study,
the researcher only studies the English complex sentences in the novel The Scarlet
Letter and its translation. This limitation is done to get result with sufficient
energy, time and finding.
E. Objective of the Study
The objectives of research are :
1. to describe the translation variations of the English complex sentences in the
novel The Scarlet Letter, and
2. to describe whether the translation of complex sentences are equivalence or not.
F. Benefits of the Study
It is hoped that the research gives beneficials to :
1. Theoretically
· The result of the research can give additional information to other
researchers who are doing for the research.
2. Practically
a. Teacher
· The results of the research can be used as additional information for the
teachers especially in teaching the complex sentences in their
b. Students
· The results of the research can be used as additional knowledge for the
students to improve their ability in analyzing complex sentences.
c. Other Researchers
· The results of the research can be useful for other researcher to make
further analysis dealing with translation shifts from other point of view.
G. Research Paper Organization
The research is designed to be systematic as follows :
Chapter I is introduction, which contains background of the study,
previous study, research problem, limitation of the study, objective of the study,
benefits of the study, research paper organization. Chapter II is underlying theory,
which contains definition of translation, principle of translation, process of
translation, type of translation, problem of translation, cultural of translation,
complex sentences, clauses of complex sentences. Chapter III is research method,
which contains type of the study, object of the study, data and data source, method
of collecting data, technique of analyzing data. Chapter IV discussed research
finding and discussion. Chapter V draws conclusion and suggestion.


  1. Thank you. Very informative... but why did you say Nathaniel Hawthorne was a black writer? What does that mean? Thanks.

  2. Saya punya pertanyaan buat pak Sapta. Dalam upload skripsi, tesis atau pun desertasi di UMS, terdapat surat pernyataan yang perlu dibuat mahasiswa yang bertujuan untuk memberi wewenang penuh kepada Perpustakaan UMS akan karyanya. Nah, berhubungan dengan tulisan ini, bapak perlu minta izin dulu ke Perpustakaan ums atau tidak untuk upload tulisan ini?