DEWI, SUSANTI KOMALA (2009)
This research aims to find the form of swearwords and the reasons of using swearwords movie manuscript. This research uses documentation and observation method to get the data. The data are swearwords utterance and their context. The data source is Bad Boys 2 Movie. The type of this research is descriptive qualitative research. In order to collect the data, she must first reads and learns Bad Boys 2 manuscript, then, takes notes of swearwords in Bad Boys 2 manuscript. Next, registers all swearwords in “Bad Boy 2” movie, whether in word and phrase, and the last, she groups the swearwords in the same classification. The result of the study shows that there are; 1) Two forms of swearwords, they are word and phrase. The word consist of noun they are 45%, verb 15%, adjective 7,5%, and adverb 5%. Where as phrase consists of noun phrase 17,5%, adjective phrase 7,5%, and adverb phrase 2,5%. 2) The reasons using swearword are showing anger 22,5%, showing mocking 22,5%, showing annoyance 15%, showing surprise 12,5%, showing deragatory 12,5%, showing warning 7,5%, showing happiness, showing power, showing intimacy, 2,5%.
A. Background of the Study
Communication is the medium of human interaction to extend
information, opinion, and feeling. By language, human beings can express
their ideas and communicate to other people. In every language there is a term
known as “four letters”. Four letters are words that are improper to be said and
known as swearwords. The swearword is used in non formal or non standard
vocabulary and the swearword belongs to any groups.
Some swear words are used to give pressure and explanation to the
statements. For example there are two statements: “that’s awesome and that’s
fucking awesome to something. The word “fucking” on the second statement
gives more value of pressure of amazed feeling. Nowadays, those words are
commonly heard not only in the crime world, but also by women who ought to
be polite and sensitive in talking. The writer finds these similar phenomena
dealing with utterances in the movie manuscript. In the manuscript, the writer
finds a lot of conversations which use swearwords. In “Bad Boys 2” movie
manuscript I found some interesting swear words such as
Roberto: “what kind of breed are they”
Marcus: “big motherfucker”
In this research, the writer will analyze the swearwords in the “Bad
Boys 2” movie in this script, she finds some conversation which is use word
with its situational context and its social relationship between the speaker, that
also describes who they are, where the conversation takes place, when, in what
situation and what language varieties and purposes are used. According to
Holmes (1992:1), “Sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language
and society”. Language that we use, in addition for extending information, can
be used for extending information about the participant themselves. For
example: age, gender, social status, the character and the participant’s belief”.
Moreover the sociolinguistic aspect will be coped according to Dell
Hymes in Wardhaugh (1986: 235) states speaking consists of: setting or scene,
participant, end, act sequence, key, instrument, norm and genre.
This research will discuss swearwords in “Bad Boys 2” movie
manuscript in a written text that is realizations of utterance uttered by the
actors in film with the title “Bad Boys 2".
B. Previous Study
The writer finds several researchers related to this research. First, Lilis
Kusumawati (2006), a UMS student conducted her study entitles “A Study on
Abusive Language in Drama Films Socio-Pragmatics Study”. The research
focused on Abusive language by using semantic theory especially types of
meaning and the varieties of abusive language. In her research, she analyzed
the referent of abusive language, the referent, the intention and the reasons of
using abusive language by applying speaking theory of Hymes.
Second, Khoirun Nafiah (2007) a UMS student conducted the study
entitles A Sociolinguistics Analysis of American Slang Used in Pretty Woman
Manuscript (Sociolinguistics Study). The research focused an analyzing slang
used in Pretty Woman movie manuscript
Based on the research above, the writer observes: Swear word in ‘Bad
Boys 2” movie manuscript. The writer analyzes the form of swearwords and
the reason of using swearword in “Bad Boys 2” movie manuscript.
C. Problem Statements
The research problems in this research are as follows:
1. What are the forms of swearwords used, in the “Bad Boys 2” movie?
2. What are the reasons of using swear words in the “Bad Boys 2” movie?
D. Objective of the Study
In line with the statement of the problem, the objectives of this study
1. to describes the forms of swearwords by the character in the “Bad Boys 2”
2. to explain the reasons of using swear words in the “Bad Boys 2” movie.
E. Benefit of the Research
1. Theoretical benefit
To give additional information to linguistic researcher dealing with
sociolinguistics study of swearword
2. Practical benefit
a. The information could be appropriate input for readers in understanding
b. The study may be useful as references for other researchers to do
F. Research Paper Organization
This research consists of five chapters:
Chapter I comprises background of the study, problem statements,
objective of the study, the benefit of the research, paper organization.
Chapter 2 discusses underlying theory that covers swearwords,
linguistics form, sociolinguistics, and sociolinguistic aspects.
Chapter 3 is research method that consists type of research, object of
research, data source, method of data collection, and technique of data
Chapter 4 presents research result and discussion of the finding.
Chapter 5 is conclusion and suggestion.
Sociolinguistics comes from the formation of two words, which are
socio and linguistics. We know that socio relates with society while linguistics
studies all about language. For the clear explanation, Nababan (1993:12)
describes the meaning of sociolinguistics as follows: Sociolinguistics
constitutes the annexation from two words that are the word socio and
linguistic. It’ we see from each meaning, socio is everything that relates with
the society, society groups, and the social function. While linguistics is study
of language especially the language especially the language elements
(morpheme, phoneme, word and sentence).
Sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language and society
and identifies the social function of language. According to Holmes (1992: 1).
Sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language and society. They
are interested in explaining why we speak differently in different context. And
they are concerned with identifying the social function of language and the
ways it is used to covey social meaning.
Sociolinguistics analyzes the conversation word, for example: how
conversation’s organized, how people ask question and give answer.
Sociolinguistics also analyzes the conversation in any place like streets,
restaurants, shops, and etc.
The sociolinguistic aspects according Holmes (1992) consist of the
participant (social distance and social status), the background (place and time),
the topic, and the function. This is the explanation of those aspects:
The participants are people who are related to the event. The
participants consist of the speaker and the listener. The choices of
language variety between participants are influenced by:
a. Social distance
Social distance refers to how well we know the addressee; this
is the important factor that determines how we speak to them.
Generally, there are two kinds that related to the factors of intimate
relationship and distant relationship.
b. Social status
Social status relates to the position of someone in the society.
The way people speak can reflect the social status determined by job
and duty the economic background, politic, even descent. In the case
of participant status, there are two kinds of status, superior and
subordinate. A participant will try to use language form that is polite
and standard if he or she interacts to someone who has higher status.
For example the worker to the superior. On the contrary, simple
language will be used by someone to other who has lower status. A
worker will use the greeting “sir” or “mum” to the superior although
the superior is younger. This is the form of his respect. A superior has
the right to call his workers.
The background shows the context from the event, like place and
time from the interaction. A speech event can happen anywhere, for
example in street, in office, at home, by day and night situation.
3. Topic and Function
What becomes the function of conversation and what becomes the
function the function of conversation will influence to the choices of
language form. If we see from the topic and the function of conversation,
there are two kinds of interaction, that is: informative (referential) and
interaction that involves the speaker feeling (affective). In the informative
interaction, the language form that used is simple language, for example
weather report. Simple language is needed to give clear information.
Affective is different from informative. Affective gives little information,
but the speaker’s feeling that holds the important role, for example when
ladies are gossiping. This function is expressive. In this research, the
writer will discuss about swearword that swearwords have the relationship
to above statements.
From the statements above, we can conclude that sociolinguistics
come from the formation of two words that are socio and linguistics. Socio
relates with all of society aspects, while linguistic studies all about
language. We ran say that sociolinguistics studies the relation between
language and society. Moreover, sociolinguistics is the study of language,
which is related to the participant of the language as a part of the society.
Moreover the research, the ethnography of communication explains about
B. Ethnography of Communication
The basic components of communication according to Dell Hymes in
Wardhaugh (1986: 235) consist of setting, scene, participant, ends, act
sequence, keys, instrumentalities, norms and genres (SPEAKING). He
explains all of that as follows:
S is setting or Scene
This is the place and situation which support the other event. Scene is
the abstract Psychological setting, or the cultural definition of the
P is participant
That is the combination between the speaker listener persons in the
communication (addressor, addressee). They have social role in a
E is ends
It is the conventionally recognized and expected outcomes of an
exchange as well as to the personal goals that participants seek to
accomplish on particular occasions.
A is act sequence
This is the actual form and content of what is said: the precise words
used, how they are used, and the relationship of what is said to the actual
topic at hand.
K is Keys
It is the way which is used in the top events
I is instrumentalities
It is the medium that is used: written or telegraph.
N is norm
This is the norms from the interaction
G is genre
It is the type of utterances for examples, poetry, advertisement, speech,
1. Notion of Swearwords
Swearwords are used to give pressure and explanation to the
statement. For example, there two statements: “that’s awesome and
“that’s fucking awesome”. Both statements have the same meaning that is
the amazed feeling to something. However, the word ‘fucking’ on the
second statement gives more value of the pressure on amazed feeling.
Swearword shows strong emotion and frustration and it is taboo.
Anderson & Trudgill (1992:53) define “swearword as (a) reference to
something taboo in a given culture, (b) to be interpreted non-literally and
(c) used to express strong emotions and attitudes”. Swearwords are
affirmations and declarations. They are words transcend their materiality
in taking on deeper meaning. They offend, they inspire, and they stir
emotions. They describe fear, surprise, anger, sadness, and happiness.
Swearwords are on exclamation point. People want to avoid of using
swearwords because they are vulgar, dirty and impolite in formal situation
whereas people use them when they need them in informal situation.
Crystal (1987:10) defines the function of swearwords as emotional
expression”, making no attempt to delineate them from other emotive
forms in language other than to say “swearwords and obscenities are
probably the commonest signals to be used in this way.
According to Wardhough (1986 : 230) “taboo is one way in which a
society express its disapproval of certain kind of behavior believed to be
harmful to its member either for super natural reasons or because such
behavior is held to violate a moral code”. The other version of swearwords
or taboo words is verbal, taboo, which is described by Hayagawa in
Escholz (1982: 247) “the phenomenon that occurs in almost all language
when the distinction between language and reality becomes confused”. In
the description of the verbal taboo, taboo words are expressed to give
expression to anger or annoyance, where at that moment we need rough
words or improper words to shows our anger.
Moreover, Robin (1992: 62) states swearwords often found in the
words that are used to convey anger, passion, etc. between unknown
people. Names of God and words which relate with the religion (the rest of
opinion that language has mysterious power), and words which regarded
as indecent, sometimes can decrease stress feeling of someone, if he or she
say that words.
From the statements, we can conclude that swearwords are words
that are considered taboo and bad by society. Swearwords express emotion
and explain oral realities that are cruel and vulgar, so incline to be avoided
in formal situation and are not accepted in social civilized community.
However, swear words are still used for the certain purposes, because
those are as social phenomenon of language.
Swear word has type according to OED XVIL 367 (in Gusworld)
that swearwords often found in the words that are used to express anger,
vexation or other strong feeling such as: surprise, annoyance, fear,
sadness, and happiness,
2. Types of English Swearwords
As swearwords are vulgar, dirty, and impolite assumed as
dangerous words to be used in daily conversation, it might be avoided
because it can make someone hurt. According to Hughes (1998: 208) the
varieties of English swearwords can be describe as the following
a. Word related to sex
According to Hughes (1998:207) that swearword dealing with
sexuality becomes the largest source in using words. He also states that
generally true that all the terms in the genital category have developed
quite a strong sense of “a worthless” or “fool”. In sexual term, there
are genital and anatomical sources of swearwords. For genital, there
are “prick, pillock (male genital), cunt, and twat (female genital)”. In
anatomical term, there is “asshole”.
b. Word from excrement
According to Hughes (1998:207) the swearwords in this
category include “shit, piss, turd, fart, and crap”.
Words from excrement generally assumed as dirty, disgusting
and rude if being done in public (http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki).
c. Word from name of animal
Actually the name of animal is not taboo at all. However, if
they are uttered or refer to the person, they may be considered as
swearwords. The swearwords in these terms are the animal categorized
weak, disgusting, beast or any other un pleasure criterions such as:
“cow, bitch, swine pig” (Hughes, 1998: 208).
d. Word related to personal background
Swearword in cluded in this category are spoken by the
participant to a person which is considered has a low status or
profession. It means to insult, degrade, or put down some one. Talking
to a person, as having a low status or profession is totally unacceptable
in public because it gains a great sensivity, hurt some one’s dignity.
The swearwords in this category are: “sod, bugger, fucker,
bastard, etc” (Hughes, 1998: 208).
e. Word from mental illness
English swearwords in this category are used as symbol of
people with mental illness (Hughes, 1998: 208). The function of such
terms is to degrade someone (http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki). The
examples are “idiot, crazy, moron, cretin, prat, etc” (Hughes,
f. Word related to sex activities
Word deals with the term of having sex activities with
somebody. It can be considered as vulgar word, such as: fuck (Hughes,
D. Linguistics Forms
Katamba (1994:1) states that word is the smallest meaningful
linguistics unit that can be used on its own. Word is the basic meaningful
element in a language. Unit means to carry by unit more complex that the
single word and by various structures and linguistics devices.
For example: car.
There are some types of words according to its part of speech, for
examples Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, preposition and conjunction.
Noun is the word which the position can be subject and object. It
consists of name of person and thing. Its arrangement with the verb
helps to form the sentence core which is essential to every complete
sentence. For example; I don’t know what the fuck you mean
Verb is the word that shows what a person or number does. Its
varying arrangements with nouns, determine the different kinds of
sentences, statements, questions, commands and exclamations. For
example; Ecstasy fucks them up
Adjective is the word that describes a noun and its most usual
position is before the noun it modifies. For example; Theresa, cancel
the damn cable.
Phrase is a single element of structure typically consists of more
than one word. De Boer (1982: 49) states that phrase is often defined as a
related word without subject and predicate. From the definition above, it
can be concluded that:
a. Phrase contains more than one word
b. Phrase contains without subject and predicate.
There are kind of phrase, such as:
a. Noun phrase
Noun phrase is a group of word that has a noun as the head. The
head can modify by adjective, adverb, noun, gerund, and participle.
Example: Oh Jesus
b. Adjective phrase
Adjectives phrase is a group of words which an adjective as
head. It is usually modified by adjective or adverb.
Example: fucking bitches
c. Verb phrase
Verb phrase is words which verb as the head.
Example: that shit's fucking annoying.
d. Adverb phrase
Adverb phrase is a phrase which an adverb as the head.
Example: It’s fucking beautiful.
Sunday, April 24, 2011
DEWI, SUSANTI KOMALA (2009)