AGUSTINA, INTAN (2010)
The major problem of this study is how struggle for surviving is reflected in Shawshank Redemption movie based on individual psychological approach. This study analyses structural elements of Shawshank Redemption movie and Andy Dufresne‟s struggle for survival based on individual psychological point of view.
This research paper is qualitative research. The object of the study is Andy Dufresne in Shawshank Redemption movie directed by Frank Darabont in 1994 by Warner Bross Pictures. The primary data is Shawshank Redemption movie itself and the secondary data are taken from the other data, which have relation with the research, the underlying theory and other materials concerned to the analysis, such as biography of the director, some books of psychology, website about the movie and homepage of the movie. The technique of data analysis is descriptive analysis.
The result of the study shows the close relationship between Shawshank Redemption movie and an individual psychology, particularly in human striving for survival. Shawshank Redemption movie directed by Frank Darabont is about someone‟s struggle for his goals of life.
A. Background of the Study
Everyone has a goal to reach and becomes successful in all aspects of life. Success will bring the person happiness and social recognition which is impeller to develop potency. The people have many experiences that come from life task, which they could or could not handle. Although they cannot resist of the problem that rises because of many kinds of activities, they balance the life with those activities as the reaction of joining the social community.
“A problem exists when there is a discrepancy between your present state and your perceived goal state and there is no readily apparent way to get from one to the other. In situations where the path to goal attainment is not clear or obvious, a problem exists, and you will have to engage in problem-solving behaviors” (Gerow, 1989: 276).
In fact people can solve their problems automatically through their daily life. Human being cannot be separated from the reality of life. Some people may see problems as a challenge in their lives and drive them to solve the problems. Beside that, people also can find some people who give different reaction. They may see those problems as a border and have no clues to solve the problems. The complexities consists of sadness, happines, hesitation, and anxiety, which appear in life as evidences that every human has thought and feeling.
The problem always brings the people to be aware of what they have done. The people have to defense for facing the problem in their life. The problem of each person will be different, but there is something that can make them same facing the problem. That is struggle. Because of struggle, they can survive in their life. Human being‟s desire to fulfill their need and getting satisfaction motivate them to connect with another external objects nature supplies much kind of necessaries to people will fulfill their biological need. Even though, in another side nature also gives such kind of dangerous area. It means that nature is save and dangerous place for human being. In other words the nature has power to give satisfaction, reduce the tension that cause pain, pleasure or disturbance.
The psychology aspect is very interesting for the researcher to create the literary works. It depicts the psychic condition of human being through the literary works. Here, struggle for surviving of the man as a part of psychilogical studies gets special attention from Frank Darabont, one of famous director. The ways that are done by one of major character to fulfill his desire are clearly portrayed in one of his movies, Shawshank Redemption.
Struggle for survival of Andy Dufresne is very interesting to be analyzed, by the meaningful environment around him. According to Gerow (1989: 4) psychology is a scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Psychology is a science; it means that a science is an organized body of knowledge gained through application of scientific methods. By behavior people know what organisms do, how they act and react, and how they respond. Psychologists study what organisms do, but some of reactions that organisms make are not so easily observed; however, they often can be measured in such a way as to make them verifiable (Gerow, 1989: 5).
Such as explained by Gerow (1989: 7) the meaning of psychologists study mental processes is the activities of consciousness not normally observable by others, including cognition (the sensing, perceiving, knowing, judging, and problem-solving skills involved in the processing of information about the world in which we live) and affect (the fellings or mood associated with emotional responses).
According to Fredenburg (1971: 4) everything in nature is unique, then it follows that every personality is different and must be studied in such a way as to capture this uniqueness. In this view, the psychology of personality is describing what is unique and peculiar to the individual.
According to the above explanatory, there is a relationship between literary work and psychology. The problem which is usually in the literary is the inferiority feeling with social interaction and his creativity in solving the problems that are caused from the situation around him. That is the reasons why there are many authors displace the realism of life into the literary. One of them is Frank Darabont who is as the director of Shawshank Redemption movie which is as researcher‟s object.
The Shawshank Redemption is a dramatic movie released by Warner Bross on September 23, 1994 in United Kingdom. This movie was adapted from horror master Stephen King‟s 1982 novella Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption for his first feature film. This movie illustrates the
liberating, redemptive power of hope and the religious themes of freedom and resurrection, with the words: Fear can hold you prisoner, Hope can set you free.” This movie is full of friendship, patience, hope, and survival.
The duration of this movie is 2 hours and 13 minutes. The movie begins with Andy Dufresne being wrongly convicted, despite persistent pleas of innocence, for the murder of his wife and her lover. He is sent to the fictitious Shawshank Prison to serve his sentence. At the prison he befriends Red (Morgan Freeman). Andy is very soft spoken, and his steady voice and calm demeanor aid in the trust of men in the prison. His pre-prison, professional life as a banker and his knowledge of accounting and income taxes earns him the trust of the captain of the guard, Captain Hadley (Clancy Brown), and eventually, the warden (Bob Gunton).
Through his years and years of being confined in the prison Andy has been working every night on his escape. He chips away at the rock in his cell a little each night to form an escape tunnel that eventually leads to his freedom. On the night of his escape Andy crawls through a sewage pipe 500 yards to come out clean on the other side of the prison. Being a free man he retrieves the money he has been collecting under a different name and escapes.
The movie ends with Red discovering a letter from Andy that leads him to Andy‟s location. He must cross the border into Mexico to meet his friend. His fate is uncertain, but it is now, at the end of the movie, that Red understands Andy‟s hope that has been possessed from the start.
Based on the explanation above, the researcher is interested in observing Andy Dufresne as a major character that strive for surviving in his life that has to struggle and solve his problems. That is the reason of researcher who is interested in understanding the relation based on the individual psychological approach for her research paper entitle: “Struggle for Survival of Andy Dufresne in Frank Darabont’s Shawshank Redemption Movie 1994: An Individual Psychological Approach.
B. Literary Review
Shawshank Redemption is one of Frank Darabont movie. But as long as the researcher knows, there is no researcher that has conducted study on Shawshank Redemption movie before in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. So, this is the first study. In this research, the researcher studies Frank Darabont‟s Shawshank Redemption based on the individual psychological approach.
C. Problem Statement
After watching Shawshank Redemption movie, the main problem of this research will be, “How is struggle for survival of Andy Dufresne reflected in Shawshank Redemption?”
D. Limitation of the Study
To carry out the study, the researcher will limit the study. The researcher focuses on the struggle for survival of Andy Dufresne as the major character of this movie, based on individual psychological approach.
E. Objective of the Study
Based on the above problem statement, the objectives of the study will be:
1. To analyze the structural elements of the movie, such as characters and characterizations, plot, setting, point of view, theme, and style.
2. To analyze the movie based on individual psychological approach.
F. Benefit of the Study
The benefits of this study are as follows:
1. Theoretical Benefit
The result of the study is expected to be able to give theoretical contribution in literary study, particularly the application of individual psychological analysis.
2. Practical Benefit
To give better understanding of this movie and to give additional knowledge about psychological theory in a literary work for other
researchers, or as the reference to the other researcher in analyzing this movie by using different perspective.
G. Research Method
There are five aspects of research method in this research paper.
1. Object of the Study
Object of the study will be Andy Dufresne in Shawshank Redemption.
2. Type of the Data and the Data Source
The data will be classified into two categories, primary data and secondary data. The primary data will be taken from movie itself, while the secondary data are taken from the other data, which have relation with the research, the underlying theory and other materials concern to the analysis, such as biography of the director, some books of psychology, website about the movie and homepage of the movie.
3. Type of the Study
This study will belong to qualitative research, which does not need a statistic analysis to explore the fact. It only focuses on the analysis of technical data.
4. Technique of the Data Collection
The research method will be used by the researcher for collecting the data. The techniques are as follows:
a. Finding the movie script from the internet.
b. Watching the movie several times, until the researcher gets an adequate information or data to be analyzed.
c. Identifying the topic of the movie.
d. Determining the major character that will be analyzed.
e. Reading some other resources related to the movie.
f. Giving marks to the particular parts, which are considered important for the analysis.
g. Taking notes for the important parts both in primary and secondary sources.
h. Arranging/ classifying the data into a good unit and develop them.
5. Technique of the Data Analysis
In this research, the technique that will be used to analyze the data is descriptive analysis technique. The researcher will describe the structural elements of the movie with individual psychological of literature. The collected data will be interpreted and analyzed in detail through individual psychological of literature in this case by showing the influence of Andy Dufresne‟s struggle for survival in Shawshank
Redemption movie: an individual psychological approach, then drawing conclusion based on the analysis.
H. Research Paper Organization
The research paper will be divided into five chapters. Chapter I is Introduction, covering background of the study, literature review, problem statement, limitation of the study, objectives of the study, benefit of the study, research method and paper organization. Chapter II will be underlying theory, covering nation of individual psychology theory, basic principles of individual psychology. Chapter III will be structural analysis, which includes the character and characterization, plot, setting, point of view, theme and style. Chapter IV will be individual psychological analysis of the movie; it presents the application of underlying theory in analyzing the problem. Chapter V will present conclusion and suggestion for this research paper also the synopsis.