AMUNGKASI, HANIF LUTFIANA (2009)
The problem of this study is how the major character, Oliver actualizes himself in Oliver Twist’s Of Oliver. The objective of this study is to analyze Oliver Twist’s Of Oliver based on the structural element and Maslow’s humanistic psychological approach. This study belongs to qualitative research. In this method, there are two types data sources which are used, namely primary and secondary data sources. The primary data source is the novel itself. The secondary data source is taken from books and other sources which support the analysis. The method of data collection is library research and technique of data collection is descriptive technique. Having analyzed the novel, the writer draws that Oliver, the major character of the novel can actualize himself although he is cripple. It can be known from his life that he can pass the four basic needs (Physiological needs, Safety needs, Love and Belongingness needs, Self esteem needs) and has the fifteen characteristics of Self-actualization.
A. Background of the Study
In this life, human beings must have needs from the basic needs to the
higher needs. It also can change from time to time. Therefore, they must
choose what needs that must be fulfilled first. Usually they tend to fulfill the
major needs first before others, as Maslow states; “...we human beings have to
meet certain basic needs of survival first, before we can even think about
needs on the next higher level”. (Papalia and Olds, 1995: 497). He also gives
example of the condition; “If you are hungry and thirsty, you will tend to try to
take care of thirst first. After all you can do without food for weeks, but you can
only do without water for a couple of days! Thirst is a “stronger” need than
The phenomena above can also be found in literary work especially in
novel. One of the novels that show the fact above is Charles Dicken’s
Oliver Twist. This novel talk about a man named Oliver who lost their parents
and live in orphanage suddenly he goes away. He meets the crime. They force
Oliver to help them to do the crime. Finally Oliver free and meet their parent.
Charles Dickens’ novels are useful, easy, and pleasant to be read.
Among the lists are Oliver Twist (1837), Nicholas Nickleby (1838), A
Christmas Carol (1843), David Copperfield (1849), Hard Time Tale of Two
Cities (1859), Great Expectation (1860), et cetera (Samekto, 1998: 84). In
Oliver Twist, the story echoes the lower people especially the orphan
children who lived in unsanitary workhouses; children labor and slavery
trade was made illegal. For a long time, one of England’s major problems
had been the support of paupers, whose numbers steadily increased (Kaste,
7). In 1834, slavery was entirely abolished in British possessions
(Kaste, 1965: 7). Bloy (2002: 1) states that, “One of the most far-reaching
pieces of legislation of the entire Nineteenth Century was the 1834 Poor Law
Amendment Act (PLAA) which abolished systems of poor relief that had
existed since the passing of Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601”.
Oliver Twist deals mainly with poverty and crime—the harvest of
social dereliction (Kaste,1965: 13).Accordingly, Dickens implacably hated all
individuals, institutions, and systems that he regarded as inimical to the flow
of natural human goodness (Kaste, 1965: 13). He lays great stress upon the
efficacy environment in the development of character and regulation of
conduct (Kaste, 1965: 13).
For the reason above, researcher intends to conduct a study on
humanistic psychological approach. By so doing, she gives the title
“SELF ACTUALIZATION OF OLIVER IN CHARLES DICKENS’ OLIVER
TWIST: A HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH”.
B. Literature Review
There are some researchers who conducted different studies of Charles
Dickens' Oliver Twist. Among the lists are “Children Abuse in Oliver Twist: A
Genetic Structuralism” by Evi Nurhidayati. Marxist approach was conducted
by Rulik Wahyuwinati in her study entitled “Class Struggle of Charles Dickens’
Oliver Twist: A Marxist Analysis” and “Comparison between the Novel and
Movie Version of Charles Dickens’ Oliver Twist: A Structural Analysis” by
Renyta Ika Wahyuni.
The present study focuses on the sociological perspective.
Another researcher has never been conducted this study before at least among the
University students in Surakarta.
In this research,the writer will try to analyze SELF
ACTUALIZATION OF OLIVER IN CHARLES DICKEN’S OLIVER TWIST
novel based on A HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH.
C. Focus of the Study
The problem of the study is “How is the self actualization of the major
character reflected of Oliver in Charles Dicken’s of Oliver Twist?”
D. Limitation of the Study
The writer limits the study on the major character viewed from
humanistic psychological approach.
E. Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study are as follows;
1. Analyzing the novel based on its structural elements.
2. Analyzing the novel based on humanistic psychological perspective.
F. Benefit of the Study
The benefits of this study are as follows:
1. Theoretical Benefit
To give contribution to the body of knowledge, particularly the
aspect of humanistic psychological study.
2. Practical Benefit
In this research, the writer wants to give some contributions to the
development of literary study. In addition, it would help another
researcher who wants to examine Charles Dicken’s works especially
G. Research Method
1. Type of the Study
This research is descriptive research whose object is to describe the
actual user of the language for communication. The nature is not to test
and to prove, but to explore and to describe. As Ary (1983: 94) qualitative
research studies are designed to obtain information concerning the current
states of phenomena. They are directed to ward determining the nature for
the situation, as it exists at the time of the study. The aim is to describe
what exists with respects to the variables of condition. In slignty different
way, Moleong (in Abdurahman and Soejono, 1999 :26) stated that
Qualotative research is a research which does not use statistic data. “it
does not present the data” and research result in the form of digits or
statistic but it yields the data and the results in theform of phenomena
The reearch is qualitative, the data collected is in the form of
words rather than number. The qualitative data consists of detailed
description of situation, events, people interaction and observed
behaviours, direct question from the people abuot their experiences
attitude, beliefs, thougts and excerpts or entire passage from documents,
correspondence recordsand case histories
2. Object of the Study
The object of the study is Oliver in Charles Dicken’s “Oliver
3. Type of the Data and the Data Source
a. There are two sources of data, primary and secondary data sources. a.
Primary data is Oliver in Charles Dicken’s “Oliver Twist”Novel
b. Secondary data are from other books, thesis, and other sources that
related to the research.
4. Technique of the Data Collection
The data collection is done through documentary or library
research that is the writer seeks the data from printed media, novel in this
case, as the primary data and the other sources as the secondary data.
These following steps are the procedure to conduct the study: first,
the writer will read the novel repeatedly, second; the writer will take
important notes in both primary and secondary data which are relevant to
the study. The third, is writing down the important data and the fourth, is
arranging the data into several part based on the classification.
5. Technique of the Data Analysis
The data were analyzed is using descriptive qualitative analysis.
This is an interpretation of the text and the context analysis to humanistic
psychological in Oliver Twist.
H. Research Paper Organization
To report this research, the writer divides the research into five
chapters, namely: Chapter I is the introduction which consists of background
of the study, literary review, problem statement, limitation of the study,
objective of the study, benefits of the study, theoretical approach and paper
organization. In Chapter II, the writer comprises the underlying theory consist
of humanistic psychological theory. Chapter III is the structural elements of
the novel. Chapter IV is humanistic psychological analysis emphasize on self
actualization suffered by the major character. Chapter V consists of
conclusion and suggestion.