Sunday, April 24, 2011


Cahyani , Ardhiyan (2009)
The researcher investigates how defense mechanism is used by the major character to survive and reduce his anxiety to be a doctor in Tom Shadyac’s Patch Adams movie, especially viewed from psychoanalytic approach. The objective of the research is analyzing the personality structure of major character based on the psychoanalytic theory by identifying the relation of major character based on the psychoanalytic theory by identifying the relation metal condition of major character and structural elements of the movie. The research paper belongs to the qualitative research the object of the study is the personality of Patch Adams. The data source come from primary data source that is the movie and the secondary data source are biography of the author, website and related with the movie. The method of the data collection is descriptive analysis. Having analyzed the movie, the writer can make conclusion that make other people laugh and happy can reduce our own anxiety such as in Patch Adam’s character. In this tension, the need defense mechanism is to reduce the anxiety. In this case defense mechanism is used to reduce anxiety by considering the id, ego, and superego

A. Background of Study
Human being lives in society, for that reason problem may arise in the society in which the individual contact with another. Sometimes the problems make someone unsatisfied such as getting anxious o hurry in his/her life. In this condition, one needs solution to solve it. Every body has ability to handle it. In human psychology, ego will act to save his/her self without caring the superego, ego has the ways in keeping the anxiety. In psychological world or physic condition it needs a defense, it is called with defense mechanism.
Ego defense mechanisms help some one to protect from anxiety. It has purpose to reduce or even to avoid unpleasant condition when somebody faces a problem or threat. Freud defined an ego defense mechanism as a mental strategy to against superego pressures (Hjelle and Zieglar, 1992:104).
Defense mechanisms are effort to deny or falsify or reality. Hajjle and Zieglar (1992:104) states that “all defense mechanism share two commons characteristics: (1) they operate unconscious level and therefore self deceptive and (2) the distort, deny, falsify perception of reality, so as to make anxiety less threatening to the individual.”
Literary work always concern with human life. It is made by processing all sides of human life, such as in psychological aspect and other aspect that deal with human behaviour. All the sides of human life will become inspiration in literary work that contains many things. For that reason,
psychology phenomena quite influence in literary work. Visual example is in a movie or film. A director will make a story based on fiction or true story in psychological knowledge and condition of human being surrounding. The characters will be made similarity with characteristic or real life of human being. An example will be applied and discussed with psychoanalytic study in a literary work with director Tom Shadyac‟s that is Patch Adams.
Patch Adams is a comedy drama film directed by Tom Shadyac and based on the true story of Hunter "Patch" Adams and the book Gesundheit: Good Health is a Laughing Matter by Adams and Maureen Mylander. Release on December 25, 1998 by Universal Pictures. The film runs 1 hour 55 minutes. Film takes location in San Francisco, California, Asheville, North California, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and USA. Cast: Robbin Williams as Haunter „patch‟ Adams, Daniel London as Truman Schiff, Monika Potter as Corine Fisher, and Philip Seymour Hoffman as Mitch Roman. The film is considered a box-office success also get salary twofold from the cost.
In 1999, the film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Music, Original Musical or Comedy Score by Marc Shaiman, nominated American Comedy Awards for Actor in A Motion picture by Robbie Williams, nominated for Golgen Globe for Best Motion Picture by Mike Farrell, Barry Kemp, Marvin Minoff and Charles Newirth, best performance by an actor in a motion picture-comedy/musical by Robbie Wiliams, nominated for Satellite Awards for best performance by an actor in a motion picture-comedy/ musical by Robbie Wiliams, nominated for Teens Choice
Awards for Film Choice Comedy, nominated for Young Artist Awards for Best Family Picture-Comedy and in 2000, won of ASCAP Film and Television Music Awards for Top Box Office Film by Marc Shaiman.
Patch Adams is a middle-age man who commit him self to a psychiatric institution for trying to commit suicide. When the doctor check Patch Adam‟s condition, doctor gives some question for him. Patch answer and try to share his problem with the doctor. Unfortunately, the doctor just heard the history but never try to understand. Patch thought that the doctor will not repair his condition.
In psychiatric institution, patch have roommate Rudy. He have phobia with squirrel. One day, Rudy want to go to bath room but he feels afraid. He imagines that there are so many squirrels around him. Patch try to understand why Rudy afraid with squirrel and make sure that they are one of the most amiable creatures on the planet. Patch gets successfully and makes Rudy brave go to bath room. Patch feels that, when he help Rudy, a moment he forgets his problem. After that, he discovers that the key to human happiness is having loving and caring people in your life. He also discovers his desire to help other through laughter, understanding, and personal connection. Patch leaving the psychiatric institution and enrolls into medical school.
Patch Adam movie get pro and contra from audiences. The audience support this film because they tough that this film inspirited them to be more like that and to talk to people and communicate with them. One of audience said “I love Patch Adam. It was such a great movie because he had such a great heart and was so kind to every one” (Lauren Weessie, age 24)”. Other that, support also given for Robbie Williams for his great acting. Patch Adam movie also get some criticize from the audience. Especially scene when Patch Adam showed his angry with God. “This movie was awful! It made me never want to see a Robin Williams movie again. The scene where he's angry with God is very shameful. Who is man that they should speak to God in that way. God receives no glory in this movie. Don't waste your time or money on this movie”, (Phillip Bowers, age 43).
The writer interest in Patch Adam‟s character because he has strong character, brave to take a decision and do what he consider. It is deference with the writer, so it inspiration her to be braver in take a decision. Other that, the writer interest in plot of this movie. There, showed how Patch Adam discovers his decision. Started from he commit himself to psychiatric institution, saw that many of the patients around him suffered from loneliness. He made friends with the patients, and he discovered that the key of human happiness is having loving and caring people in your life. Then he enrolls to medical school and begins interacting with patients. Until he accused of practicing medical without license and almost blocked his graduation from medical school. The writer also interest in Patch Adam defense mechanism because patch try to change his anxiety, forget his problem by helping other people.
From this reason, the writer chooses the psychoanalytic approach to analyze the film. The research paper entitled “DEFENSE MECHANISM OF
B. Literature Review
Here, the writer compares several researchers which relate to the topic of this research. There are two researches which relate to the object of this research. First, Steven C. Scheer (1998), he describe how Patch use unusual way to treat his patient. He makes the patient happy in order to increase their quality of life, until he almost drops out from medical school.
Second research is done by Ririn Fitria Yuniati (2009), she was the student of English Department, Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. Her research entitles “The Struggle of Patch Adams to Be a Doctor in Tom Shadyac Patch Adams: An Individual Psychological Approach”. In her analysis, she described the way and struggle of Patch Adams to be a doctor and the difficulties that he gets. But the difficulties make him stronger in reach his dream.
While in this study different from two previous studies, the writer is going to analyze the defense mechanism of Patch Adam in order to reduce his anxiety in reach his dream. Entitle “DEFENSE MECHANISM OF PATCH ADAMS IN TOM SHADYAC‟S PATCH ADAMS MOVIE: A PSYCHOANALYSIS APPROACH”.
C. Problem Statement
The problem in this study how the Defense Mechanism is reflected in Tom Shadyac‟s Patch Adams movie: psychoanalytic approach.
D. Limitation of the Study
To carry out the study, the researcher needs to limit the study. The researcher is going to analyze Patch Adam as one of the major character in Patch Adams movie, based on psychoanalytic approach.
E. Objective of the Study
a. To analyze the movie based on its structural elements.
b. To analyze the movie based on psychoanalytic approach.
F. Benefit of the Study
a. Theoretical Benefit
To give additional information and contribution to the larger body of knowledge, particularly studies in Patch Adams movie.
b. Practical Benefit
To give deeper understanding for the writer herself about the movie based on psychoanalytic approach.
G. Research Method
1. Type of Research
In this study, the researcher applies qualitative research.
2. Object of Research
Object of the research in this case is Tom Shadyac‟s patch adams movie. In introducing the research, the writer is going to analyze it by using psychoanalytic approach.
3. Source of Data
There are two types of namely:
a. Primary Data Source
The primary data sources are taken from Tom Shadyac‟s Patch Adams movie and its manuscript by Carol De Pasquale.
b. Secondary Data Source
The secondary data are taken from other sources, which are related to primary data that support the analysis. They are books and virtual reference as documentation.
4. Technique of the Data Collection
The methods used for collection data are library research and documentation. These are technique of data collecting
a. Watching and learning to the movie rapidly.
b. Reading the script to get more understanding.
c. Reading some related reference to observe the theory, data and information.
d. Making notes of important part and both primary and secondary data source.
5. Technique of the Data Analysis
In this research, the technique that is used to analyze the data is descriptive analysis, in which the researcher identities defense mechanism of major and main character in Tom Shadyac‟s Patch Adams movie using psychoanalytic perspective.
H. Paper Organization
The writer organizes the research paper into five chapters. The first chapter is introduction, which contain the background of the study, literature review, problem statement, limitation of the study, objective of the study, benefit of the study, research methodology and research paper organization. The second chapter is dealing with underlying theory that consist of the notion of psychoanalysis, structure of personality, anxiety, defense mechanism in psychoanalysis theory, structural element of movie, and theoretical application. Third chapter deals with the structural analysis of the movie and discussion of the movie. Fourth chapter is the psychoanalytic analysis. In addition, finally is fifth chapter draws conclusion and suggestion.

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