AFTAVIANI N, ELLY (2010)
The major problem of this study is to elucidate the Struggle for Getting
Freedom in Frank Darabont’s the Shawshank Redemption Movie: An
Individual Psychological Approach. The objectives of the study are; to
analyze the structural elements of the movie and to analyze the character of
Andy Dufrane based on individual psychological perspective.
In conducting this study, the researcher uses qualitative research in which
the date are based on primary data the Shawshank redemption movie it self.
While secondary data are Shawshank Redemption’s biography and other data
which deal with the research.
In analyzing the data, she applies two approaches. Firstly, structural
approach is used to analyze the elements of the movie. It consists of
characterization, setting, point of view, plot, style, and theme. Secondly, the
individual psychological approach is used for analyzing the struggle for
getting freedom and optimism of Andy Dufrane that influences his daily
activity and behavior toward life. These approaches are applied in order to get
the appropriate analysis and answer the problems. The writer finds that Andy
Dufrane crawls his way to freedom through a sewage pipe. He wants to get
Key Word : Strunggle Individual Psychological Approach
A. Background of the Study
World is filled with many things that always make human’s life up.
Joy and pain come and go. Those condition must be considered by the people
to decide the best thing to make them survive. Each people brings his own
destiny. So that they need some efforts to survive and it is not only stick
around for dreaming the next destiny.
Men needs some supports to live in the next destiny. Here,
environment, society, should be combined with hope, effort and belieft to
chase the next destiny or future. The man must be strong and has his own
defence in life. Some do the right way to achieve it but some do not.
Sometime they use themselves or collaborate with the other to gain the
destination. The people ought to understand in what way they concern with.
Although, they cannot resist the competition with the other.
The competition of the people can be better in their lives and it is able
to motivate them to sacrifice. They must have willingness to support to gain
the destination. The man who has strong desire to achieve the goal in his life
must be followed by good relation and leadership, so that they can gain the
People have different destiny but they have a desire in their own social
community. They must fight to get what they want. People gather in such
society to hold a nation. The people’s sacrifice is needed to strenghten the
nation. Freedom is the key of nation to be alive. The struggle for freedom
needs the strong behavior and good strategy of people. So, everything that can
be achieved as one goal which is called the freedom. So it means that struggle
for freedom is decided by willingness, personalities, desire and behavior.
Those phenomena are the object of psychological studies that represent the
reality of life.
Psychology has the same object of the study as literature does. It is
seen from the definition of literature as a permanent writing, which expresses
and communicates thoughts, feeling and attitudes toward life and the world.
Shortly, both psychology and literature study human being’s life with its
problems in their life (William, 1965: 24)
Based on understanding above, the writer will intend to conduct a
study on psychological aspect of the main character in the movie of The
Shawshank Redemption. It is directed by Frank Darabont which was first
released in September 24, 1994 in USA. It has 142 minutes in running time.
Frank Darabont was born on January, 28th 1959 in Montbeliard, France. He
was successful in directing advanture movies such as Buried Alive (1990), The
Shawshank Redemption (1994), The Green Mile (1999). The Majestic (2001),
and The Mist (2007)
This movie’s setting is in Shawshank State Prison in Maine in 1946.
Andy Dufrane is a simple man; banker, husband, and man of spirits and hopes.
Because of wrongly covicted of killing his own wife, he is sentenced to a long
term of imprisonment in shawshank prison. When the first arrives on day one
at the prison, the inmates are betting on who will crack first among the “fresh
meat” to arrive at the prison. Someone always cracks. A man that could get
him anything in prison. named Red gambled that Andy would break down
first. Andy did not crack that day though, in fact he didn’t even mutter a peep.
Instead another new inmate “fat ass” as he is euphemestically called cracks
and weeps like a baby. The guards shut him up with force, and he never does
cry or moan anymore after that.
In a place like shawshank, hope is a dangerous thing for many. But to
Andy’s hope never dies as even in prison. No place could ever get the best of
him. With a really small hammer used by rock collectors, he inches his way to
freedom night by night over a period of decades. He disguises the hole he is
making in the wall with a big poster of Rita Hayworth. Everyday he disperses
the pieces of the wall he chipped away on the gound outside. He hides his
hammer in a bible. A bible is the prison’s warden holds and reads from on one
occasion. Even the poster that conceals his escape route is commented on by
In time he becomes a valuable asset to the warden as he launders
money from all his illegal activies. Andy’s skills are such that the prison
baseball season is aligned with tax season so that Andy can do the taxes of
guards from around the state. In the end after many years of work and sweat
Andy crawls his way to freedom through a sewage pipe. He uses his
knowledge of the banking industry and the tax system to recreate his identity.
He claims all the money that he loundered for the warden in various accounts,
frames the warden for his misdeeds, and heads overseas. The warden kills
himself rather than face prison, and the guards that tortured him in prison are
arrested. Andy is a free spirit, as free as a bird and even prison could not keep
him caged for long.
At the end of the film Red, one of Andy’s friends from prison, is
released on parole. He has a duty to report every week on free. A note is left
for Red which leads him to Andy’s location and his boat. The Shawshank
Redemption illustrates the unbendable human spirit. Even a wrongful
imprisonment, a corrupt warden and enemies within Shawshank cannot get the
best of Andy Dufrane or any man as long as hope never dies.
Based on the case above, the writer is interested in analyzing the major
character, Andy Dufrane, because he has a very important role in the plot, and
gives information about psychological phenomenon. It is seen from the way of
the main character struggle, a person who wants to get his country freedom.
The writer will give the title of this research STRUGGLE FOR GETTING
FREEDOM IN FRANK DARABONT’S THE SHAWSHANK
REDEMPTION MOVIE: AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL
B. Literature Review
Among the library of university in Central Java there are many
researchers who have analyzed the movie by using Individual Psychology
approach. The first researcher was Dwi Purwaningrum in 2001, in this
opportunity the researcher desides to conduct a research on the major
character’s way on struggle for Americans try to change their lives just like
their dreams. Their aim makes them become a good man, wealthy and good
appearence. In her problem focused on how a struggle for love is reflected in
F.S Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Her title is “A Struggle for Love in F.
Scoot Fitzegerarld’s The Great Gatsby: An Individual Psychology Approach”.
The second research is Raindri Wibowo, in 2007, his investigated how
the major character copes with this optimism in his personality in the struggle
for life.The story about Sidney Seldon tries to illustrate the major character in
coping with his optimism personality in his struggle for life. He focused on
one of the major characters in the novel, Julia Stanford. His title is “The
Optimism Of Julia Stanford In Sydney Sheldon’s Morning, Noon and Night:
An individual Psychology Approach”. They investigate about the major
character within the object.
The difference .of both researchers above is that the first concerns on
the way the major character solve his trouble and the second concerns on
solving his trouble journey of his soul. In this occasion, the researcher will
take the individual psychological approach to reveal the struggle for getting
freedom in The Shawshank Redemption movie.
C. Problem Statement
The major problem of the study is how the struggle for getting freedom
is reflected in The Shawshank Redemption movie
D. Limitation of the Study
This study is limited to the struggle for getting freedom of human right
Andy Dufrane and how the struggle influences his psychological development
in Frank Darabont’s The Shawshank redemption movie. This study uses
individual psychology perspective. It is as a means of analysis with
consideration that Andy Dufrane’s psychological development is influenced
by the struggle for getting freedom.
E. Objective of the Study
This research paper devided into two, they are:
1. To analyze the structural element.
2. To analyze the film
F. Benefit of the Study
The result of the study is highly expected to give benefit as follow:
1. Theoretical Benefit
This study is expected to give a high contribution to the body of
knowledge, particularly to those who are interested in Frank Darabont’s
The Shawshank Redemption movie.
2. Practical Benefit
This study is expected to give deeper understanding about the movie of
Frank Darabont’s The Shawshank Redemption from Psychological
G. Research Method
In this research, the writer analyzes the Frank Darabont’s The
Shawshank Redemption movie. There will be five points that should be taken
into account in this research method:
1. Object of the Study
The writer takes The Shawshank Redemption movie as the object of the
study. The movie is directed by Frank Darabont released in September, 23 1994.
2. Type of the Study
This research applies qualitative research.
3. Type of the Data and the Data Resource
In doing this study, the writer uses two sources of the data, they are:
primary data source and secondary data sourse.
a. Primary Data Source
The primary data source is the film itself the Shawshank
Redemption by Frank Darabont. The data are taken from the dialogue,
scene, setting and all of the statement related to the problem.
b. Secondary Data Source
The secondary data saurce is taken from other sources, which
relates to the primary data such as website about the film, book,
journal and another data related to this research.
4. Technique the Data Collection
The data will be taken by watching the movie of Shawshank
Redemptiont in order to understand about the movie.
b. Library Research
The data will be collected from the books that relate to the topic.
5. Technique of the Data Analysis
The writer uses two techniques in analyzing the data. They are as follows:
a. Analyzing the structural element of the movie, and
b. Analyzing the struggle for freedom of the main character using
descriptive analyzing based on underlying theories.
H. Research Paper Organization
This paper is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is
introduction, covering the background of the study, literature review, problem
statement, objective of the study, theoretical approach, and research method
and paper organization. the second chapter deals with underlying theory,
including the notion of individual psychology and basic assumption of
individual psychology, structural of the film and theoretical application. The
third chapter is the structural analysis of the film, including narrative and
technical elements. The fourth chapter is dealing with analysis individual
psychology. And the last chapter is conclusion and suggestion.