CHIELMIATY , ALDISE YOFA (2010)
This research deals with abusive utterances in comedy movie manuscript. The aims of this research are to identify the form, to describe the implicature and to describe the politeness patterns of the abusive utterances in comedy movie manuscript. The type of this research is descriptive qualitative. The data source of this research is comedy movie manuscript, The Pacifier. The writer takes 37 data of abusive utterances in The Pacifier movie. The method of collecting data is documentation and the steps are reading, selecting and collecting, and coding the data. The method of analyzing data is descriptive technique. The analysis of the form is based on linguistic form, especially the types of sentences. While the analysis of implicature is by referring to the context of pragmatics. Then, the analysis of the politeness patterns is by using politeness principle. This study shows the variety of the form, implicature and politeness pattern of abusive utterances used in comedy movie manuscript. The variants of form of sentences are: (1) Declarative, (2) Interrogative, (3) Imperative and (4) Exclamatory. The implicature of the study covers implied meaning of conventional implicature and conversational implicature whose types are name-calling, denial, trivializing, accusing and blaming, withholding, discounting, judging and criticizing, undermining, ordering, and blocking and diverting. The politeness patterns are bald on record, positive politeness, and off record
A. Background of the Study
People speak and convey their thought in various ways. Sometimes they
speak about the rude statement used to gain other’s emotion. Someone may
even do these things in joking manner. Although do in joking manner, this
rude statement belongs to abusive utterances. The abuser is seeking to control
both the victim’s actions and the victim’s emotions. Abusive according to
Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary (2003: 2) belongs to adjective, which
means, “using rude or cruel words”. Meanwhile, the abusive utterances as
defined by way2hope.org (retrieved in 9 December 2009, at 11.20 p.m)
“abusive utterances is the power of words to cause serious and often
Meanwhile, a good movie has good story, good actors, good actresses,
good language and give the audience a visual and real life to experience.
Usually, learners of English are suggested to watch movies in English,
because those movies generally show daily life of people from English
speaking countries. As their scripts are verbal, those movies can work as a
great help for learners of English to improve their language competence from
the point of pragmatics. The Pacifier is just one of them, in which instances of
implicature are in full play in this movie. The writer uses the implicature
theory, cooperative principle, and politeness strategy in analyzing the abusive
utterances uttered by the speaker. Meanwhile, all those theories is under the
umbrella of pragmatics field.
According to Yule (1996: 3), “Pragmatics is concerned with the study of
meaning as communicated by a speaker (or writer) and interpreted by a
listener (or reader) physical production of linguistics behavior.”
In the source of study, the researcher takes, the major utterances used is
the abusive utterances. The other definition explaining about abusive
Abusive statements are used to gain or maintain control. Abusive
statements are meant to push your buttons, provoke you and throw
you off guard. Things such as anger, guilt, disappointment,
jealousy and regret are often used by abusers to get your goat.
Even in some cultures there is the proverb: make him stupid, make
(www.associatedcontent.com, retrieved in 9th December 2009,
at 11.20 p.m)
From the quotations above, abusive utterances actually deals with the
rude statements which is used to gain or maintain other’s emotion.
Meanwhile, in daily life people often communicate in any different situations
included upset, angry, or even anguish. In the factual world, people massively
meet some annoyed expressions such as words or phrases or actions to reject
someone or to make someone feel unimportant, e.g. ignoring. It can be
illustrated as when people are saying things such as "Who wants to be with
you?" or "No one would go out with you,”. Meanwhile, the other case of
abusive utterances often met are not allowing someone to sit with the abuser;
not allowing someone to join in certain events, saying people with disabilities,
and the other rude statement ignoring and hurting someone else.
When someone telling some others, a different race or ethnicity to get
'back to where they came from’, being rude and unfriendly with others,
unconsciously s/he has done such kind of abusive language. As well as, telling
someone who has a facial or body defect in front of the public that s/he is
causing discomfort to other customers also any other illustration of abusive
A man who is blaming his friend by saying “You’re just trying to start
a fight”, is delivering a rude statement. The speaker uses abusive language to
show up her/his emotion in order to get other people’s emotion. The following
is other example of abusive utterances that the writer finds in comedy movie
This conversation happens in Suburban Street –afternoon. A taxi door
opens. He steps from the taxi onto a cute troll doll on the sidewalk. It squeaks.
Then, Shane double-checks the address. The sprinklers go off. Shane darts to
the door and rings the bell (it is one of those cheerful doorbells). There is a
tiny feet approach, and then the door swings open. Shane looks down and sees
Lulu, 8, peering up at him. Shane eyes Lulu. Lulu eyes Shane, then:
: Mom! There's some weird bald guy at the door!
The first utterance by Lulu” Mom! There’s some weird bald guy at
the door!. “ while she is screaming, is the abusive utterances. Lulu heaps
abuse upon Shane, the Lieutenant who is going to be staying with her family
for a while, to save them from the robber of her father’s data. Lulu shuts the
door in Shane's face. Shane frowns. Lulu does an action of lowering Shane
who looks like a weird person, a bad ass.
While the second conversation occurs in the Principal’s Office. Todd
and Zoe got a call from their principal because they have missed twenty-two
driver’s Ed classes out of twenty-three.
Shane : Wolfe. Shane. Lietnant. I’m in charge of watching these kids
for.... a few days
Murney : Baby-sitter huh. Well, whatever work you can get.
The utterance by Murney, Zoe’s vice-principal “Baby-sitter huh. Well,
whatever work you can get. “ belongs to abusive utterances. Murney is a
boasting vice principal. He always lowers Shane’s self-esteem by saying that
Shane is baby sitter. At that time Shane has to take care the baby, Tyler. In
this case, Murney has not known who Shane is. He regards that Shane is
ordinary person, who suddenly come to his office to guard Todd and Zoe, the
worst students in that school who has missed twenty-two driver’s Ed classes
out of twenty-three. Murney does actions to belittle and ridicule over Shane
who notabene is a Lieutenant. This type of abusive language lowers self-
esteem and often leaves the partner feeling insignificant.
Based on the cases above the writer intends to deepen finding the
implicature beyond abusive utterances found in comedy movie. The reason
why the writer chooses comedy movie is because in that movie many abusive
utterances are spoken. Moreover, from that kind of abusive utterances is going
to add the sense of humor of the movie. The researcher proposes to focus her
scientific research in analyzing abusive utterances of movie manuscript under
the theory of Socio-Pragmatics. Eventually, the title of this research is Socio-
Pragmatic Analysis on Abusive Utterances Used in Comedy Movie Manuscript.
B. Previous Study
The research in which the researcher wants to focus is not the first
research that concern with Socio-Pragmatics. In fact, it is further research that
tries to analyze a specific case about speech actions under theory of Socio-
Pragmatics. Therefore, the researcher presents several previous studies that
have similarities in applying the theory of Socio-Pragmatics.
The first previous study was conducted by Lilis Kusumawati (UMS,
2004). The researcher took A Study of Abusive Language in Drama Films. In
her research, she analyzes the referents of abusive language, the intention and
the reason of using abusive language appearing in drama movie manuscript.
Her finding is that there are ten referents of abusive language, namely word
related to animal, part of body, sex organ, excrement, personal background,
mental illness, sex activity, religion, people, and blaspheme. She also found
11 intentions of abusive utterances; describing, sorrow, pleasure, informing,
And then the last finding is 7 findings of reason of uttering
abusive utterances. There are showing annoyance, showing power, showing
anger, showing derogatory, showing surprise, showing intimacy, and showing
The second research was written by Muhammad Nur Cholis (UMS,
2007). In his research, he took A Socio-Pragmatic Analysis on Blaming and
Accusation Utterances of Black American’s Speech in Movie Manuscript. The
research focuses on describing the type, intention, and reasons of blaming and
accusation utterances used in Black American movie manuscript. The finding
is that they are 4 types of blaming utterances; direct blaming uttered in
statement, indirect blaming utterance uttered in statement, direct blaming
utterance uttered in question, indirect blaming utterance uttered in question.
Besides, there are also types of accusation utterance; direct accusation uttered
in statement, indirect accusation uttered in statement, direct accusation uttered
in question. Meanwhile, the intention of blaming utterance are asserting,
humiliating, showing confusion, questioning, requesting. While the intention
of accusation utterance are asserting, questioning, humiliating. The next
problem, the reasons of blaming utterance includes showing anger and annoyance,
showing annoyance,showing underestimation,showing confusion, showing surprise,
showing firmness and showing frustration.
While the reasons of accusation utterances are ; showing anger and
annoyance, showing anger, showing firmness, showing annoyance, showing
showing conviction,showing desperation,showing
Based on those researches, the researcher modifies them into a new
subject to study. In this research, the researcher takes the same field of study,
Socio-Pragmatic and the researcher uses the same category of utterances with
the first study, namely abusive utterances.
From those two previous studies, the writer can conclude and find the
similarities and differences. With the first previous study by Lilis
Kusumawati, the similarity is on the kind of utterances to analyze. Meanwhile
the differences are located in the data, data source and the problems being
analyzed. Kusumawati’s data is the abusive language in drama movie;
meanwhile this research’s data is abusive utterances in comedy movie
manuscript. Meanwhile the problem will be analyzed in this research is the
implicature and the politeness strategy of using abusive language. It is
different from Kusumawati’s problems; the referents, the intention and the
reason using abusive language.
However, from the second previous study, this research shares in
common on the kind of utterances. Blaming and accusation utterances are sort
of abusive utterances. Meanwhile, the difference is on the source of data, data
analysis and problem statement. Cholis’ data is from blaming and accusation
utterances in Black American movie manuscript. His problem is the type and
intention of blaming and accusation utterance conveyed by the speaker.
Meanwhile, this research concerns in the implicature of the utterances and in
the politeness strategy of the speaker. As a result, the researcher intends to
study Socio-Pragmatic Analysis on Abusive Utterances Used in Comedy
C. Research Focus
Based on the background above, the research problems focus on:
1.What are the forms of abusive utterances found in comedy movie
2.What are the implicature of abusive utterances found in comedy movie
3.What are the politeness strategies of speaker in addressing abusive
utterances used in comedy movie manuscript?
D. Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study intended by the researcher are as follows:
1.To describe the form of abusive utterances found in comedy movie
2.To describe the implicature of abusive utterances found in comedy
movie manuscript, and
3.To describe the politeness strategies of speaker in addressing abusive
utterances found in comedy movie manuscript.
E. Benefit of the Study
The researcher expects this research will give benefit for the students.
There are two benefits, namely academic significance and practical
significance. They are as follows:
1. Academic Significance.
a. The findings of this research will give contribution in Socio-Pragmatics
study, especially in implicature and politeness strategy of abusive
utterances found in movie manuscripts.
b. This research is expected to be helpful in giving some more knowledge
and enrich the theories in Socio-pragmatic, especially about abusive
utterances and its implicature found in movie manuscript.
2. Practical Significance
a. The readers will recognize the implicature of speaker in addressing
abusive utterances found in movie manuscript.
b. The readers will know the politeness strategies of speaker in addressing
abusive utterances found in movie manuscript.
c. The result of this research will be used for the next researcher in
analyzing the implicature and the abusive utterances as the reference.
F. Limitation of the Study
In doing her research, the researcher limits the discussion by focusing
on the analysis of Socio-Pragmatics of abusive utterances found in comedy
However, the theories, which used are implicature, politeness strategy,
and preagmatics context by Hymes. Therefore, the framework of this study is
socio-pragmatics. This research will only deal with abusive utterances. The
writer chooses it because there has not been the research that analyzes the
form, implicature and politeness strategy of abusive utterances viewed from
the pragmatics approach. She will analyze the form, implicature and
politeness strategy of abusive utterances.
G. Research Paper Organization
To ease the reader when reading this research, the writer is going to
organize this research into table of content. The content of this research will be as
Chapter I is introduction. It consists of background of the study, previous
study, problem statements, objective of the study, limitation of the study, benefit
of the study, and the research organization.
Chapter II is underlying theory. It deals with the notion of Socio-Pragmatics,
pragmatic’s principle, cooperative principle, context of pragmatics, politeness
strategy, classification of speech acts, abusive utterances and type of sentence.
Chapter III is the research method. It consists of the type of research,
object of research, data and data source, the technique of collecting data, and the
technique of analyzing data.
Chapter IV is data analysis. In this part, the writer will show and describe
the data analysis and the discussion of research finding.
Chapter V is conclusion and suggestion. It is as the final result of this