ASHARI, ABU (2010)
The study is about the relationship between environment and character building in Shane Meadows This Is England. The major problem in this research is how the Shaun’s misbehavior is reflected in Meadow’s movies This Is England. The objective of the study is to describe the structural elements of the movie and to analyze major character’s misbehavior from behaviorist perspective. The writer conducts the research by using qualitative method that uses the library research, while the data sources are literary data that are divided into two categories, primary and secondary data. The primary data are the movie subtitle This Is England itself and the secondary data include several references from internet. The object of the research is the Shaun’s misbehavior as the major character derived from Shane Meadows This Is England, which was released on 27th April 2007 published in United Kingdom by Optimum Releasing (UK). The outcome of the study shows the following conclusion. Firstly, there is a close relationship between a work of literature and behavior phenomena. Secondly, the behaviorist analysis falls into general conclusion that human misbehavior is influenced by interacting factors: environment. Thirdly, Shaun’s misbehavior is influenced by his environment.
A. Background of the Study
In the real world, everyone and another has different characteristic of personality in their self. Generally, the personality development is influenced by several factors. There are family, social environment and heredity. Good or bad developments of personality depend on how the members of family give a child love and fulfill the necessity, how the social environment accept and admit a child and how the contribution of the heredity from the parents is.
Family involve all the members in the house who has a relation as the family like parents, brother and sister, grandparents, etc. Parents are the closest people to a child. Moreover, a parent is one factor that forms the children’s personality, because a parent is the person who has first contact with the child. While the members in the family, beside parents, have the influence to the child’s personality, too. For example, if a child has a positive learning from the parents, but the other members of his family give negative learning, the child personality can be formed by the most of learning either of positive or negative learning.
Social environment has the influence to the child’s personality development. For example, a child who lives in the harmonious family can be a child who has bad behavior that imitates his neighbors who always do the bad behavior.
Heredity also influences a child’s personality development. Heredity factor, usually, determines the instinct to interact with everything in his environment.
A founder of behaviorism theory is J.B. Watson, who focuses on stimulus and response (S-R) in the environment. He said that he could take any healthy infant and makes it into whatever was desired (as doctor, lawyer, beggar, thief, etc) by providing the proper environment. It means that Watson’s theory prior the environment factor, which contains many stimuli to form a person’s behavior to be good or bad as the respond of good or bad stimulus. Not all theory of Watson is true. There is a child who grows in the bad environment grows to be a person who has good personality. In here, the heredity factor has contribution to the child’s personality development.
In 1938, a young psychologist name B. F. Skinner published a book entitled “The behavior of organism”. He said that “The basic tares of behaviorism is the best way to understand learning to examine the environment and the observable force an it and to analyze how this forces affect the responses of the organism in question”. Therefore, the researcher chooses the Skinner’s theory about behaviorism to analyze this art work, the movie of This Is England by Shane Meadows.
The director, Shane Meadows was born in December, 26th 1972, is an English film director, screenwriter and occasional actor, from Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, England. He is regarded as one of the rising stars of British cinema.
Much of the content of his films are semi-autobiographical and based on his experiences in Uttoxeter. Twenty Four Seven was inspired by his youth, both at a boxing club, and also playing in a local football club. Despite some huge losses, the club's coach never lost faith in them. A Room for Romeo Brass was also inspired by his youth. After his best friend, neighbour (and later writing partner) Paul Fraser had a very bad accident and was bound to his bed for two years, Meadows instead hung around with some of the town's more undesirable characters. Dead Man's Shoes is based on the more unpleasant side of his youth in Uttoxeter. It was inspired by a close friend who had been bullied, developed a drug problem and then committed suicide. He said "I couldn't believe that, going back ten years later, he had been totally forgotten in the town - it was as if he had never existed. I was filled with anger against the people who had bullied and pushed the drugs on him, and with despair at what drugs had done to that small community".
While living in the Sneinton area of Nottingham, he made roughly 30 short films with the friends he met there. King of the Gypsies (1995), Small Time (1996), Where's the Money, Ronnie? (1996), Twenty Four Seven (1997), A Room for Romeo Brass (1999), Once Upon a Time in the Midlands (2002), Dead Man's Shoes (2004), Northern Soul (2004), The Stairwell (2005), This Is England (2006), Somers Town (2008).
The outline of the story “This Is England” is that a young "Shaun Fields" lives in a small un-named Northern English town in 1983. Twelve year old "Shaun" is a lonely boy growing up in a grim coastal town in Northern England,whose father died fighting in the Falklands War. Over the course of the summer holiday he befriends a group of local Skinhead. With his pent-up rage and frustration, Shaun finds exactly what he needs in the gang –mischief, mayhem and brotherhood.
On the last day of the school term before summer break "Shaun" is harassed over his choice of hippy-like clothing by several cooler kids. On his way home from school, Shaun chances upon a non-racist skinhead gang (includes two Jamaican members) led by the charming and lanky "Woody". Shaun immediately takes to Woody as a surrogate father figure and is soon admitted in to the gang. Admission means parties, a new girlfriend, a new haircut, a new Ben Sherman shirt, and a new pair of boots (purchased by his mother in an extremely funny scene) as well as a whole new group of friends who treat Shaun as an equal.
All seems well in this quiet English town until one incident changes all of their lives about midway through the film. This is the return of "Combo" from 3 years in prison. Combo is the former leader of this gang and wastes no time trying to re-establish his dominance in a direct confrontation with Woody. Combo has become a racist during his 3 years in prison and views skinheads as the prefect front line soldiers in the National Front's (an extremely conservative political party) war to keep England for "Englishmen."
This confrontation with Woody soon splits the gang, some siding with Combo, others with Woody. Shaun is now forced to choose among father figures and the movie takes a decidedly chillier tone from it's lighthearted first half. Even Shaun still appears like an adorable little child as he dresses in an English Cromby coat to go "Paki (Pakistani workers) Bashing" at the local store.
The movie comes to what seems like an almost inevitable violent clash between two of the main characters that, despite its predictability, still jars the viewer, hopefully leaving you sickened. Shaun is then left to decide where his future lies.
The film contains a fantastic soundtrack of early "skinhead reggae" tunes, including several songs by Toots and the Maytalls, including "54-46" which is played over a collage of media clips from 80's Britain and the Falklands War. It's a terrific mood setter for the rest of the film.
Some American viewers may initially be off-put by the idea of any "Skinhead" related movie if all they know of skinheads is what they have seen in the American press in the last 20+ years. It may surprise many viewers not familiar with the original skinhead scene in Britain to learn the original skins (now often called Traditional Skins, Trojan Skins, or '69 skins) were a multi-racial bunch who were an off-shoot from the Mods. They were known, like the Mods, for being sharp dressers and they chose as their music Jamaican Rocksteady, Reggae, and American Soul. The skinhead movement in England largely died out in 1972 and then saw a revival in the late seventies. It's this revival group that was penetrated by the likes of the National Front that Meadows covers here. If you choose to not watch this film based on it's subject matter, you are missing not only one of the best acting performances by a new-comer (Turgoose) in recent history, but you are also missing what will no doubt become considered landmark moment in British film history.
From the explanation above, the writer is very interested in making research this film about the misbehavior of the major character, the lonely boy named Shaun. And this study conducted under the title SHAUN’S MISBEHAVIOR REFLECTED IN MEADOW’S THIS IS ENGLAND (2007): A BEHAVIORIST APPROACH.
B. Literature Review
Based on researcher’s observation, at least Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta, researcher found that no one has conducted a research on this film. The film title This Is England by Shane Meadows has never been discussed before by other researchers in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta.
Also, after by the time researcher searching on virtual reference, Google Search about This Is England film, did not found any other research conducted about this film. The researcher takes the behaviorism approach to broaden and understand the film deeply.
C. Problem Statement
The major problem in this research is how the Shaun’s of misbehavior is reflected in Meadow’s movies This Is England.
D. Limitation of the Study
In this occasion the researcher limits the problem being discussed. It is focused on analyzing the major character. Shaun is related with his personality development and the influence of social environment in the movie’s This Is England by Shane Meadow. Besides, the researcher will use psychology, especially behaviorism theory.
E. Objective of the Study
According to the problem statement above, the researcher has some objectives on this study as follows:
1. To analyze the structural elements of the movie’s in order to identify the unity of the movie entitled This Is England
2. To analyze the major character’s behavior and personality based on behaviorist approach in This Is England movies.
F. Benefit of the Study
The study is expected to give benefit as follow:
1. Theoretical Benefit
To give some contribution to the development of the large body of knowledge, particularly the literary study on This Is England especially by a behaviorist approach.
2. Practical Benefit
The study is expected to complete partial of requirements for getting bachelor degree of education in English Department.
G. Research Method
1. Object of the Study
The object of the Study is Shane Meadow’s artwork This Is England.
2. Type of the Study
The research about this movie is qualitative research. It is called so because it does not need statistics to explore the facts. Qualitative research is a type of research that does not include calculation and enumeration.
3. Type of Data and the Data Source
There are two sources of data namely primary data source and secondary data source:
a. The Primary Data Source
It is taken from Shane Meadow’s This Is England, in which the length time of movie 100 minutes.
b. Secondary Data Source
The secondary data source as supporting data are taken from additional sources, which are related with the primary data, such as; The author’s biography, essay, website about the movie and, reader’s review from the website and any other source which relevant with the study.
4. Technique of the Data Collection
This research uses documentation as technique of data collecting. The researcher takes some steps such are:
a. Watch the movie’s repeatedly after for material of criticism.
b. Reading several books, this in line with the theory, author, and other information.
c. Making notes of the important part, both primary and secondary sources.
d. Classifying the data into some categories.
e. Classifying the data into some categories and selecting them by rejecting the irrelevant information, which does not support the topic of study.
5. Technique of the Data Analysis
In analyzing the data, the writer employs descriptive qualitative analysis of content analysis. The analysis is started from the structural analysis of the work and finally the behavior analysis of the literary work.
H. Paper Organization
In order to make it easer for the reader to understand the content of this research, the researcher is going to organize it into five chapters. Chapter I is introduction that consists of background of the study, literary review, problem statement, limitation of the study, objective of the study, benefit of the study, theoretical approach, research method, and paper organization. Chapter II deals with the underlying theory, behaviorism psychology, and structural elements of the movie that will be used to analyze the film. Chapter III deals with the structural analysis and discussion of the film. Chapter IV deals with the behavioral analysis. Chapter V deals with the conclusion and suggestion.