Asy’ari, Rodli (2009)
The objectives of this research are to analyze and describe the forms, meanings and the reasons of using code mixing in Islamic printed media. The objects of this research are the English codes mixing that are found in Islamic printed media. The data of this research are the sentences containing Indonesian – English code mixing.In collecting the data, the writer uses documentation method. This research paper studies English code mixing focused on the form, meaning and reasons in Islamic printed media. The data sources are EraMuslim Digest on second edition, 2007 and Al Insan Journal in No.1, Vol.3, 2008. The writer uses Suwito’s theory (1985: 78) in analyzing the forms of code mixing, and referring to the theory of Larson (1988: 271) to describe the meaning of English codes mixed into Indonesian. Then, the writer uses Chaika’s theory of context of speech, “who is speaking to whom about what, where, when, and in what situation” (1982: 10) and Ohoiwutun (2002: 71) to analyze the reasons of using code mixing. The results of this research paper are: firstly, there are six forms of code mixing used in Islamic printed media, which are categorized by their class of word. The insertions of English code mixing used in Islamic printed media are in a form of word (single and compound word), phrase, hybrid, word reduplication, idiom and clause. Secondly, the meaning of codes mixed into Indonesian that found in Islamic printed media are lexical and contextual meaning. Thirdly, the reasons of using code mixing in Islamic printed media, after analysis the code mixing the researcher found the reasons of using code mixing in Islamic printed media there are two reasons: need filling motive and prestige filling motive.
A. Background of the Study
In the era of globalization and modernization, the use of English as
a global language in Indonesia especially in written language on printed
medias such as magazines, newspaper, tabloids, journal and others.
Moreover, English become a must for the writers which indirectly will
give benefit to the readers, more and more in frequency. As a result, as
reported by Emilia and Wididiana in “The Jakarta Post” (July 2, 2000)
she says that English has penetrated Bahasa Indonesia and it seems there
is no stopping not a day passes in a metropolitan city like Jakarta in
which English is not heard, although it might be spoken and written
correctly, as they know in the utterances of some medias even electronic
and printed medias. They further pointed out that Indonesian people
starting from the president of Indonesia, to business executives,
celebrities, religionist, housewives, and teenagers are adopting English
phrases in their daily linguistics interactions even on the oral and written
ways.Hakim (1998: 235) termed such a phenomenon as INDOLISH or
Indonesian - English which can be defined as the involvement of some
English expressions in Indonesian discourse (oral and written). Although,
such a term may be associated with other languages such as: Chinese –
English, Arabic – English, and etc. The phenomena have something done
in bilingual or multilingual society
The condition in which people mix or switch more than one
languages is called bilingual or multilingual (Truman and Napitupulu,
1994: 13). Most people in this world at least know one or two words of a
foreign language. Indonesia is one of many countries which have
hundreds of languages. Each language, in the society has its own rule.
Also, a person has a certain purpose in using a language. People can
choose one of many languages he or she mastered in oral and written
communication. The more languages he or she mastered, the more
flexible he or she is in the communication. Besides, the people will get
more pride from other people because his or her special capability in
using many languages.
In multilingual community, speaker tends to mix one language and
the other, which is commonly called as code mixing. According Suwito
(in Rohmadi, 2004: 60) states that code mixing is the use of two or more
languages by entering the pieces of a language to another while the
pieces with inserts do not have their function. While Trudgil (1992: 16)
defines that code mixing is the process whereby indulge in code
switching between languages of such rapidity and density, even within
sentences and phrases that is not possible to say at any given time which
language they are speaking. Code mixing can be seen in spoken and
written language. Code mixing is in written language, can be found in
media such as: newspaper, magazine, novel, journal, article, etc.
Both the Islamic printed media (EraMuslim digest and Al Insan
Journal) are popular Islamic media. One of make interest because its
magazine have concern in study of Islamic thought and civilization. And
the magazine has supported with Islamic thought and civilization experts
who graduate from domestic and abroad. As the readers, they are
Moslem people have education or usual called intellectual Moslem. Most
of them are students, teachers, lectures, doctors, religious activist, and
etc. In both Islamic printed media, the journalists mix the codes of
English. Code mixing in both of magazines is done to adapt to the
reader’s need. To give a little description of what the researcher intends
to do, the researcher puts forward some example as follows:
(1) ...Mudah-mudahan isi majalah up to date terus. Terakhir semoga
tetap jaya dan menjadi NUMBER ONE MOSLEM MAGAZINE.
CONGRATULATIONS...(EraMuslim Digest Second Edition/ on
(...Hopefully content of the magazine is always up to date. Last but
not least, may it be successful and to be NUMBER ONE MOSLEM
(2) Selain itu, CIA juga akan memblow- up volume kampanye tentang
adanya ancaman aksi terorisme ...(EraMuslim Digest Second
Edition/ on page 78)
(Besides, CIA also will blow up the campaign volume concerning
existence of terrorism action threat...)
(3) Mahathir menyebut Negara superpower itu telah melakukan politik
yang blatant double standard. (Al Insan Journal No.1, Vol.3,
2008/ on page 62)
(Mahathir calls superpower state has done political which blatant
From those examples, it is obvious that there are some code
mixings found in the magazine such as up to date, number one Muslim
magazine, mem-blow up, volume, superpower, and blatant double
standard, . The mixtures are used since the readers and the writers
understand English. Besides, those mixing will make the readers learn
English. Those codes mixing may sometimes result in the problem of
English writing if it’s a formal written language. A part from the fact
whether this is right or wrong to do code mixing in written language. It is
interesting to know the forms, meanings and the reason of using the code
mixing in Islamic printed media because there is only use Indonesian-
English code mixing. Based on that facts, the research intents to classify
the forms and meanings of the code mixing in both of magazines and
analyzing the reason of its usage in Islamic printed media.
Remembering the significance of the uses of code mixing, it is
necessary to identify and understand the forms, meanings code mixing
and reasons of its usage, especially in Islamic printed media. Based on
these reasons the writer wants to conduct an entitled.
“A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON INDONESIAN - ENGLISH
CODE MIXING USED IN ISLAMIC PRINTED MEDIA”.
B. Previous Studies
There are some researchers who have conducted the study of code
mixing. One of them is Pohda-OH (UMS, 2007) in her research entitled
“An analysis of Thai- English Code Mixing used in Kullastri and
Khwanrean Thai Magazine”. She found that code mixing is like another
code language is used by certain social group, certain occupation, certain
situation, and only understood by people who have the same interest, and
in Thai Magazine, people use code mixing. The forms of code mixing used
in Thai magazine are word, phrase, idioms and abbreviation.
The second research was written by Subekti (UMS, 2006) in her
research entitled is “An Analysis of Indonesian English Code Mixing Used
in Tempo Magazine”. She found that there are some findings of code
mixing. There are three forms of Code mixing; word, phrase, and idioms.
And there is one type code mixing that is outer code mixing. She has
found three reasons of using the codes: need filling motive, prestige filling
motive and other reasons. Other reasons are classified into five reasons: to
complain’ to give respect, to make the sentence more refined, to give
information, and to compare.
Both of the two previous researchers concern with code mixing as the
research done by the writer. However, the writer uses different object of
the research. The writer takes the data from Islamic printed media, which
source of the data consequently contain only Indonesia- English codes
mixing. Secondly, the writer uses additional theory to analyze reasons of
using code mixing which have not yet done by previous researcher.
The additional theory is referring by the theory of context of speech of Chaika
(1982: 10) to analyze the reasons of using code mixing.
C. Problem Statements
The problem statements can be formulated as follows:
1. What are the forms of Indonesian- English code mixing used in
Islamic printed media?
2. What are the meanings of the English codes mixed into Indonesian?
3. What are the reasons of Indonesian- English code mixing used in
Islamic printed media?
D. Objective of the Study
Based the formulation of the problems above, the research is aimed
1. Classifying and analyzing the forms of code mixing used in Islamic
2. Analyzing the meaning of English codes mixed into Indonesian.
3. Describing the reasons of code mixing used in Islamic printed media.
E. Benefit of the Study
The writer hopes that this research will be useful both theoretically
a. The result of this research can be another side of accumulated ideas
on code mixing especially in sociolinguistics study.
b. The result of this research can be used as the references for those
who want to conduct a research in sociolinguistics study.
a. This research provides for students a better way for code mixing study.
b. The results will help students in increasing knowledge on code
F. Research Paper Organization
The organization of research paper is given in order to help the readers
understand the content of the papers as follow:
Chapter I is introduction, it consists of background of the study,
previous study, problem statement, objectives of the study, benefits of the
study, and research paper organization.
Chapter II deals with underlying theory, it deals with of theories to
assist the writer in doing the study. The theories are: concept of
sociolinguistics, scope sociolinguistics, notion of context of speech, notion
of meaning, bilingual and bilingualism, effects of bilingualism, code
mixing (the definition of code mixing, the characteristics of code mixing,
the differences between code mixing and code switching, forms of code
mixing, reasons of using code mixing), mass media, and Islamic printed
Chapter III presents research method; it presents of type of research,
object of the research, data and source of the data, method of data
collection, and technique of data analysis.
is research finding and discussion, it relates to data
analysis and the discussion of the findings which has the intention to
analyze the data to find the code mixing, forms, meaning and reasons of
using code mixing.
Chapter V is conclusion and suggestion.